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Impact of depression on stroke outcomes among stroke survivors: Systematic review and meta-analysis

PLoS One. 2023 Dec 1;18(12):e0294668. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0294668. eCollection 2023.


BACKGROUND: Depression may negatively affect stroke outcomes and the progress of recovery. However, there is a lack of updated comprehensive evidence to inform clinical practice and directions of future studies. In this review, we report the multidimensional impact of depression on stroke outcomes.

METHODS: Data sources. PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and Global Index Medicus were searched from the date of inception. Eligibility criteria. Prospective studies which investigated the impact of depression on stroke outcomes (cognition, returning to work, quality of life, functioning, and survival) were included. Data extraction. Two authors extracted data independently and solved the difference with a third reviewer using an extraction tool developed prior. The extraction tool included sample size, measurement, duration of follow-up, stroke outcomes, statistical analysis, and predictors outcomes. Risk of bias. We used Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) to assess the quality of the included studies.

RESULTS: Eighty prospective studies were included in the review. These studies investigated the impact of depression on the ability to return to work (n = 4), quality of life (n = 12), cognitive impairment (n = 5), functioning (n = 43), and mortality (n = 24) where a study may report on more than one outcome. Though there were inconsistencies, the evidence reported that depression had negative consequences on returning to work, functioning, quality of life, and mortality rate. However, the impact on cognition was not conclusive. In the meta-analysis, depression was associated with premature mortality (HR: 1.61 (95% CI; 1.33, 1.96)), and worse functioning (OR: 1.64 (95% CI; 1.36, 1.99)).

CONCLUSION: Depression affects many aspects of stroke outcomes including survival The evidence is not conclusive on cognition and there was a lack of evidence in low-income settings. The results showed the need for early diagnosis and intervention of depression after stroke. The protocol was pre-registered on the International Prospective Register of Systematic Review (PROSPERO) (CRD42021230579).

PMID:38039323 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0294668

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