Nevin Manimala Statistics

Gamma-glutamyl transferase and calculus of kidney incidence: a Mendelian randomization study

Sci Rep. 2023 Dec 9;13(1):21821. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-48610-7.


Elevated Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels are often suggestive of cholelithiasis, and previous studies have indicated that GGT is highly expressed in the urinary system. Therefore, we hypothesized that there may be an association between GGT levels and calculus of kidney (CK) incidence. To investigate this potential causal relationship, we employed Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. Additionally, we analyzed the levels of other liver enzymes, including alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The relationship between GGT levels and CK incidence was analyzed using two-sample Mendelian randomization. Summary Genome-Wide Association Studies data were utilized for this analysis. 33 single nucleotide polymorphisms known to be associated with GGT levels were employed as instrumental variables. We employed several MR methods including IVW (inverse variance weighting), MR-Egger, weighted median, weighted mode, and MR-PRESSO (Mendelian Randomization Pleiotropy RESidual Sum and Outlier). Furthermore, we conducted tests for horizontal multivariate validity, heterogeneity, and performed leave-one-out analysis to ensure the stability of the results. Overall, several MR methods yielded statistically significant results with a p-value < 0.05. The results from the IVW analysis yielded an odds ratio (OR) of 1.0062 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.0016-1.0109 (p = 0.0077). Additional MR methods provided supplementary results: MR-Egger (OR 1.0167, 95% CI 1.0070-1.0266, p = 0.0040); weighted median (OR 1.0058, 95% CI 1.0002-1.0115, p = 0.0423); and weighted mode (OR 1.0083, 95% CI 1.0020-1.0146, p- = 0.0188). Sensitivity analyses did not reveal heterogeneity or outliers. Although potential horizontal pleiotropy emerged, we speculate that this could be attributed to inadequate test efficacy. However, subsequent use of MR-PRESSO did not provide evidence of pleiotropy. Our analysis suggests a positive association between elevated GGT levels and CK incidence, indicating an increased risk of CK development. However, no causal relationship was observed between levels of ALP or ALT and CK incidence.

PMID:38071316 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-023-48610-7

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