Nevin Manimala Statistics

Clinical Characteristics of Primary Snoring vs Mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children: Analysis of the Pediatric Adenotonsillectomy for Snoring (PATS) Randomized Clinical Trial

JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2023 Dec 14. doi: 10.1001/jamaoto.2023.3816. Online ahead of print.


IMPORTANCE: It is unknown whether children with primary snoring and children with mild obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) represent populations with substantially different clinical characteristics. Nonetheless, an obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 1 or greater is often used to define OSA and plan for adenotonsillectomy (AT).

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether a combination of clinical characteristics differentiates children with primary snoring from children with mild OSA.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Baseline data from the Pediatric Adenotonsillectomy Trial for Snoring (PATS) study, a multicenter, single-blind, randomized clinical trial conducted at 6 academic sleep centers from June 2016 to January 2021, were analyzed. Children aged 3.0 to 12.9 years with polysomnography-diagnosed (AHI <3) mild obstructive sleep-disordered breathing who were considered candidates for AT were included. Data analysis was performed from July 2022 to October 2023.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Logistic regression models were fitted to identify which demographic, clinical, and caregiver reports distinguished children with primary snoring (AHI <1; 311 patients [67.8%]) from children with mild OSA (AHI 1-3; 148 patients [32.2%]).

RESULTS: A total of 459 children were included. The median (IQR) age was 6.0 (4.0-7.5) years, 230 (50.1%) were female, and 88 (19.2%) had obesity. A total of 121 (26.4%) were Black, 75 (16.4%) were Hispanic, 236 (51.5%) were White, and 26 (5.7%) were other race and ethnicity. Black race (odds ratio [OR], 2.08; 95% CI, 1.32-3.30), obesity (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.12-2.91), and high urinary cotinine levels (>5 µg/L) (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.15-3.06) were associated with greater odds of mild OSA rather than primary snoring. Other demographic characteristics, clinical examination findings, and questionnaire reports did not distinguish between primary snoring and mild OSA. A weighted combination of the statistically significant clinical predictors had limited ability to differentiate children with mild OSA from children with primary snoring.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this analysis of baseline data from the PATS randomized clinical trial, primary snoring and mild OSA were difficult to distinguish without polysomnography. Mild OSA vs snoring alone did not identify a clinical group of children who may stand to benefit from AT for obstructive sleep-disordered breathing.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: Identifier: NCT02562040.

PMID:38095903 | DOI:10.1001/jamaoto.2023.3816

By Nevin Manimala

Portfolio Website for Nevin Manimala