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Drug-related problems in hospitalized patients with chronic kidney diseases and clinical pharmacist interventions

BMC Geriatr. 2023 Dec 13;23(1):849. doi: 10.1186/s12877-023-04557-y.


BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk of drug-related problems (DRPs) because of extensive comorbidities and pharmacokinetic changes. This study aimed to identify DRPs and possible contributing factors in hospitalized patients with CKD, and evaluate the efficacy of the clinical pharmacist services in detection and intervention of DRPs in a large general hospital in Zhejiang Province, eastern China.

METHODS: With the approval of the Ethics Committee, patients with CKD admitted to the nephrology ward from January to December 2020 were enrolled in this prospective study. The clinical pharmacist identified and intervened the DRPs during hospitalization. The DRPs were classified using the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe (PCNE) DRP classification system, and all data were statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 26.0.

RESULTS: A total of 914 patients with CKD were included, with 463 DRPs observed among 420 (45.95%) participants; the average DRP per patient was 0.51 (standard deviation [SD], 0.60) before pharmacist intervention. Treatment safety accounted for the highest proportion of problems (43.84%), followed by treatment efficacy, accounting for 43.20%. Drug selection was the most common cause of DRPs (60.26%), and antibiotics and cardiovascular agents were the most common drugs associated with DRPs (32.84% and 28.66%, respectively). A total of 85.53% of pharmaceutical intervention recommendations were followed, and 84.23% of DRPs were completely resolved after intervention by the clinical pharmacist. The proportion of patients who experienced DRPs decreased to 7.77%, with an average of 0.08 (SD 0.28) DRPs during hospitalization after pharmacist’s intervention. Significant contributing factors for DRPs were CKD stage 4, number of comorbid diseases, number of prescribed medications, and hospitalization days in both the univariate and multivariate logistic regression models.

CONCLUSION: DRPs are common among hospitalized patients with CKD in China. CKD stage 4, the number of comorbidities, use of multiple prescription drugs, and extended length of hospital stay are contributing factors for DRPs. Even only one clinical nephrology pharmacist in the nephrology ward, clinical pharmacist can play an important role in facilitating the identification of DRPs in patients with CKD and assisting physicians resolve DRPs in this single center study in China.

PMID:38093184 | DOI:10.1186/s12877-023-04557-y

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