Nevin Manimala Statistics

Effect of gestational weight gain in a cohort of pregnancy women with obesity operated and not operated for bariatric surgery

Nutr Hosp. 2023 Sep 27. doi: 10.20960/nh.04639. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVE: to determine the effect of gestational weight gain and perinatal outcomes in obese women who underwent and did not undergo bariatric surgery.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: a retrospective observational cohort study was conducted. The gestational weight gain was classified as insufficient, adequate or excessive according to the guidelines of the United States Institute of Medicine: 4.99-9.07 kg for body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m2. Weight gain was calculated as the difference between the weight at the first visit of the 1st trimester and the weight at the visit of the 3rd trimester. Outcomes examined included antepartum variables (gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, premature rupture of membranes, placenta previa, placental abruption, intrauterine growth retardation, chorioammionitis, spontaneous abortion), intrapartum variables (induced delivery, vaginal delivery, vacuum, forceps delivery, cesarean section, shoulder dystocia), postpartum variables (postpartum hemorrhage, need for postpartum transfusion, postpartum anemia, need for emergency care, maternal death, postpartum tear, postpartum thrombosis) and neonatal variables (preterm delivery, weight percentile > 90, weight percentile < 10, Apgar score < 7, malformations). Using the statistical package SPSS 22.0, a statistical analysis of the data was performed.

RESULTS: two hundred and fifty-six women were recruited; 38 (14.58 %) were pregnant after bariatric surgery and 218 (85.15 %) were pregnant women with obesity who had not been operated on. Of the pregnant women with obesity who had not been operated on, 119 (46.68 %) had grade 1 obesity (BMI 30-34.9), and 99 (38.67 %) had grade 2 and 3 obesity (BMI > 35). A global and subgroup analysis was performed. In the overall analysis, 78 (30.46 %) had insufficient gain, 117 (45.70 %) had adequate gain, and 61 (23.82 %) excessive gain. Overall, insufficient weight gain was associated with a lower probability of gestational hypertension (p < 0.015) and forceps delivery (p < 0.000) and large for gestational age newborn (p < 0.000). On the other hand, insufficient weight gain was associated with a higher probability of intrauterine growth retardation (p 0.044), peripartum infection (0.022), preterm delivery (0.006), and delivery < 35 weeks (p 0.016). Excessive weight gain was associated with a higher probability of gestational hypertension (p 0.025), induced labor (p 0.009), forceps delivery (p 0.011) and large for gestational age newborn (p 0.006). Pregnancies after bariatric surgery had fewer overall complications compared to the other groups.

CONCLUSIONS: insufficient and excessive weight gain worsens perinatal outcomes. Adequate weight gain does not increase complications and produces some benefits.

PMID:38095073 | DOI:10.20960/nh.04639

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