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Metabolic Syndrome and its Correlates among Hypertensive Patients in Abuja, North Central Nigeria

West Afr J Med. 2023 Nov 30;40(11):1164-1172.


BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of abnormalities which includes central obesity, dyslipidaemia, elevated blood pressure and hyperglycemia. Hypertension, (which is a very common component of metabolic syndrome), and diabetes mellitus, are independently associated. Also, studies examining metabolic syndrome inAbuja, a city with affluence-driven lifestyle, are not available. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among hypertensive patients in Abuja, Nigeria, as well as to examine the associations between metabolic syndrome and certain factors in that cohort of hypertensive patients.

METHODS: This was a retrospective study that used data from hypertensive patients who attended clinic over a period of five years. Eight hundred and fifty-eight, (858-combined), case files of pre-treated, (previously known hypertensive patients) and newly diagnosed hypertensive participants were used for the study. The student t-tests were used to compare continuous variables, while Chi-square (χ2) tests were used for relationship between qualitative variables. The likelihood ratio test was employed to further confirm the statistical significance of certain independent variables relating with metabolic syndrome. A P-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

RESULTS: The mean ages were 48.70±12.18, 49.19±11.06 and 48.2±13.3 years for combined group, the pre-treated and the newly-diagnosed groups respectively. The pre-treated, group consists of those previously known hypertensive patients, while the new group consists of those who were newly diagnosed hypertensive patients and were treatment naïve. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in this study was 45.5% in the combined group, 47.23% in the pre-treated group and 37.3% in the newly diagnosed group. The commonest component of metabolic syndrome was reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C.

CONCLUSION: Metabolic syndrome is prevalent among hypertensive patients in Abuja, Nigeria. Some correlates of metabolic syndrome include; elevated BMI, truncal obesity, elevated total cholesterol, the use of thiazide diuretics and beta blockers as antihypertensives.


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