Georgian Med News. 2023 Oct;(343):127-133.
The design of studies on the immune system does not have gender peculiarities, but the information about the higher frequency of pathology of the female reproductive system in the presence of immunodeficiency condition determines the purpose of this study, namely, to identify the features of immune status in the presence of secondary immunodeficiency of infectious (i.e., HIV infection, AIDS stage) and non-infectious origin (alcohol dependence syndrome) and their combination in women of reproductive age. The material for the study of cellular and humoral immunity was a lymphocyte suspension obtained by centrifugation of peripheral blood (taken within 12 hours after death) in women of reproductive age with HIV infection (AIDS stage), alcohol dependence syndrome and their combination. Immunological examination included the determination of quantitative indicators of cellular immunity using monoclonal antibodies: T-lymphocytes (CD3) and their main subpopulations of T-helper cells (CD4), cytotoxic lymphocytes (CD8), CD4/CD8 immunoregulatory index; as well as indicators of humoral immunity: B-lymphocytes (CD19) and immunoglobulins of the main classes (IgA, IgG, IgM). Additionally, interleukins IL-6 and IL-10 were studied to determine the parameters of the cytokine profile. The study indicates that the number of leukocytes and lymphocytes in the group of deceased women with alcohol dependence syndrome was 3.6±0.38×109/l and 0.82±0.35×109/l; in deceased women with HIV/AIDS, these indicators were reduced – 2.9±0.03×109/l and 0.39±0.04×109/l, respectively; and in deceased women with combined pathology (AIDS and alcohol dependence syndrome), they were reduced even more intensively – 2.7±0.04×109/l and 0.35±0.06×109/l (p<0.01). Compared to the control group – 5.22±0.4×109/l and 1.73±0.21×109/l – the number of leukocytes and lymphocytes was reduced in all study groups. In the group of deceased women with alcohol dependence syndrome, significant impairments in the proliferative activity of T-lymphocytes (CD3) and their subpopulation (CD4), as well as B lymphocytes (CD19) and natural killer cells (CD16) were found compared to the group of healthy individuals. Thus, in the control group, the percentage, and absolute values of CD3 were 60.37±4.2% and 1.04±0.05×106/l, and in women suffering from chronic alcoholism, they were statistically significantly lower – 49.1±3.1% and 0.42±0.08×106/l, respectively, p<0.01. The same tendency was found when comparing the values of T-helper cells (CD4) in the control group (44.2±2.9% and 0.76±0.13×106/l) and in deceased patients suffering from chronic alcoholism (33.7±4.6% and 0.28±0.23×106/l), p<0.01. Secondary immunodeficiencies of infectious and non-infectious origin in women (in particular, those formed in HIV/AIDS, alcohol dependence syndrome and their combination) are characterized by negative changes in the cellular and humoral components of the immune system, as evidenced by the presence of transient immunodeficiency, activation of cytolytic and auto aggressive reactions. As a result of these processes, systemic and organ pathology develops, in particular, weakening of the body’s resistance to various infections and pathological changes in organs and tissues, which may be one of the links in the development of pathological processes in internal organs and tissues.