Sci Rep. 2023 Dec 16;13(1):22400. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-49798-4.
Host (base) fluids are unable to deliver efficient heating and cooling processes in industrial applications due to their limited heat transfer rates. Nanofluids, owing to their distinctive and adaptable thermo-physical characteristics, find a widespread range of practical applications in various disciplines of nanotechnology and heat transfer equipment. The novel effect of this study is to determine the effects of mixed convection, and activation energy on 3D Sutterby nanofluid across a bi-directional extended surface under the impact of thermophoresis diffusion and convective heat dissipation. The flow equations are simplified in terms of partial differential equations (PDEs) and altered to non-dimensional ODEs by implementing classical scaling invariants. Numerical results have been obtained via the bvp4c approach. The physical insights of crucial and relevant parameters on flow and energy profiles are analysed through plotted visuals. Some factors have multiple solutions due to shrinking sheets. So stability analysis has been adapted to analyses stable solutions. Graphical representations demonstrate the reliability and accuracy of the numerical algorithm across a variety of pertinent parameters and conditions. A comparison between existing results and previously published data shows a high degree of compatibility between the two datasets. The present study extensively explored a multitude of practical applications across a diverse spectrum of fields, including but not limited to gas turbine technology, power generation, glass manufacturing, polymer production, wire coating, chemical production, heat exchangers, geothermal engineering, and food processing.