J Cancer Res Ther. 2023 Dec 15. doi: 10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_7_23. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer (EC) is an extremely aggressive tumor with one of the highest geographic, ethnic, and gender variations. Various factors including tobacco consumption, unhealthy diet, and socioeconomic status have been implicated in the etiology of EC. Despite the advent of modern treatments, the prognosis of EC is dismal. This study has been undertaken to review the clinical and pathologic profiles, treatment approach, and survival pattern in patients with EC in a tertiary care hospital in northeast India.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study was done with 179 EC patients presented to our department between January 2013 and December 2020. Statistical analysis was done by using IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 21. P- value <0.05 was considered significant.
RESULTS: The majority of the patients presented in the sixth decade of life from rural areas with male to female ratio of 3.7:1. Dysphagia was the most common presenting feature. High incidence of tobacco and alcohol use was found. Mid-esophagus is the most common site and squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type. Fifty-two (29.1%) and 71 (39.6%) patients presented in stages III and IV, respectively. Twenty-four (13.4%) patients presented with metastatic disease, the lung being the most common site. Patients were treated with surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or combination of any of these. Overall median survival for the EC patients was 6 months. Patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation had better survival.
CONCLUSION: EC is a serious malignancy with a dismal prognosis due to the advanced stage at presentation. Larger clinical trials using new therapeutic strategies are the need of the hour.