Nevin Manimala Statistics

Incidence and Predictors of Major Adverse Drug Reactions Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Children on Antiretroviral Treatment in West Amhara Comprehensive Specialized Hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia: A Multicenter Retrospective Follow-up Study

Clin Ther. 2023 Dec 16:S0149-2918(23)00431-9. doi: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2023.11.001. Online ahead of print.


PURPOSE: Major adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are the leading causes of poor adherence, switching of drugs, morbidity, and mortality. A limited studies was conducted to investigate major ADR in developing countries including Ethiopia, and the purpose of this study was to assess the incidence and predictors of major ADRs among HIV-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in West Amhara Comprehensive Specialized Hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia.

METHODS: An institutional-based retrospective follow-up study was conducted among 460 children receiving ART from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2021. A simple random sampling technique was employed, and data were collected using Kobo Toolbox software and then deployed to STATA 14 for analysis. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve and the log-rank test were used to estimate and compare survival times. Both bivariable and multivariable Weibull regression models were fitted to identify predictors. Finally, an adjusted hazards ratio (AHR) with a 95% CI was computed, and variables with P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant predictors of major ADR.

FINDINGS: The overall incidence rate of major ADRs was 5.8 (95% CI, 4.6-7.3) per 1000 child months. Being female (AHR, 2.71; 95% CI, 1.52-4.84), tuberculosis (TB)-HIV co-infection (AHR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.32-4.68), World Health Organization stage (III and IV) (AHR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.39-4.56), zidovudine-based (AHR, 2.84; 95% CI, 1.11-7.31), and stavudine-based (AHR, 5.96; 95% CI, 1.63-21.84) regimens were found to be significant predictors of major ADRs.

IMPLICATIONS: The major ADR incidence rate was high. Health professionals should employ early screening and close follow-up for children with advanced World Health Organization clinical staging, females, those with TB-HIV co-infection, and those receiving stavudine- and zidovudine-based initial regimens to reduce the incidence of major ADRs.

PMID:38105175 | DOI:10.1016/j.clinthera.2023.11.001

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