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Rapid and sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus in human saliva samples using glycan based nanozyme: a clinical study

Mikrochim Acta. 2023 Dec 18;191(1):36. doi: 10.1007/s00604-023-06120-3.


A highly sensitive colorimetric method (glycan-based nano(e)zyme) was developed for sensitive and rapid detection of the SARS-CoV-2 virus based on N-acetyl neuraminic acid (sialic acid)-functionalized gold nanoparticles (SA-Au NZs). A number of techniques were used to characterize the prepared nanomaterials including XRD, FT-IR, UV-vis, DLS, and TEM. DLS analysis indicates an average hydrodynamic size of 34 nm, whereas TEM analysis indicates an average particle size of 15.78 nm. This observation confirms that water interacts with nanoparticle surfaces, resulting in a large hydrodynamic diameter. The peroxidase-like activity of SA-Au NZs was examined with SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses (influenza A (H1N1), influenza A (H3N2), and influenza B). UV-visible spectroscopy was used to monitor and record the results, as well as naked eye detection (photographs). SA-Au NZs exhibit a change in color from light red to purple when SARS-CoV-2 is present, and they exhibit a redshift in their spectrum. N-acetyl neuraminic acid interacts with SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein, confirming its ability to bind glycans. As a result, SA-Au NZs can detect COVID-19 with sensitivity and specificity of over 95% and 98%, respectively. This method was approved by testing saliva samples from 533 suspected individuals at Ghaem Hospital of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated by comparing the results with the definitive results. The positive results were accompanied by a color change from bright red to purple within five minutes. Statistical analysis was performed based on variables such as age, gender, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and lung involvement. In clinical trials, it was demonstrated that this method can be used to diagnose SARS-CoV-2 in a variety of places, such as medical centers, hospitals, airports, universities, and schools.

PMID:38108890 | DOI:10.1007/s00604-023-06120-3

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