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Sex-related difference analyses of efficacy and safety in clinical trials of direct-acting antivirals to treat chronic HCV genotype 1 and 3 infections

J Viral Hepat. 2023 Dec 19. doi: 10.1111/jvh.13901. Online ahead of print.


This study aims to identify clinically meaningful sex differences in efficacy and selected safety adverse events for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) or HIV/HCV co-infection in those receiving combination direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens. Our assessment was based on adult trial participants treated at the approved DAA dosage and treatment duration from 40 phase 3 clinical trials submitted to the FDA. Female enrollment ranged from 11% to 54% (overall mean 38%). Females with HCV genotype (GT) 1 or 3 infection had statistically significant higher unadjusted or covariant-adjusted odds of achieving sustained virologic response at post-treatment Week 12 (SVR12) compared with males. Odds ratios favouring females were observed among Whites and those ≥40 years of age with HCV GT1 or 3 infections, and among those ≥50 years of age, non-cirrhotic and those with HCV GT3 infection who were treatment-experienced. These differences were not clinically relevant due to the high SVR12 rate achieved by females and males, overall or in subgroups. No differences were observed in SVR12 rates between HCV GT1 mono-infected and HCV GT1/ HIV-1 co-infected participants. Numerically, more females reported headache, fatigue and nausea compared to males, but the differences were small and predominately Grade 1 or 2 severity. Discontinuation rates for any reason or due to an adverse event were low and similar between the sexes. Our study demonstrated females successfully complete DAA regimens and achieve high SVR12 rates despite numerically higher adverse events for certain commonly reported events.

PMID:38111976 | DOI:10.1111/jvh.13901

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