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Association of autoimmune disorders with chronic rhinosinusitis in adults

Am J Otolaryngol. 2023 Dec 14;45(2):104177. doi: 10.1016/j.amjoto.2023.104177. Online ahead of print.


INTRODUCTION: Increasing evidence suggests that autoimmune disorders and their immunomodulating medications may increase the risk of rhinosinusitis compared to rhinitis.

GOAL: To investigate the association between autoimmune disorders and rhinosinusitis.

METHODS: We performed a case-control study of patients referred to West Virginia University from August 2020 to October 2022 for rhinologic complaints. Rhinosinusitis patients were diagnosed with either chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) or recurrent acute rhinosinusitis (RARS). These patients were compared to non-rhinosinusitis patients. Patients’ characteristics, comorbidities, and type of treatment of autoimmune disorders were reviewed.

RESULTS: The sample consisted of 527 rhinosinusitis [184 CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP), 263 CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and 80 RARS patients] patients and 564 non-rhinosinusitis patients. Patients with rhinosinusitis were more likely to be older, males, have asthma, and have current and past smoking history (all with p-value < 0.05). Autoimmune disorders, primary antibody deficiency, and immunomodulator agents were more common in rhinosinusitis patients (16.5 % vs 9.4 %, OR = 1.9, p < 0.001; 5.1 % vs 0.5 %, OR = 10.1, p < 0.001; and 3.8 % vs 1.1 %, OR = 3.7, p = 0.003 respectively). Multivariate logistic regression adjusting for confounders showed that autoimmune disorders were strongly associated with rhinosinusitis [OR = 1.6, 95 % CI = 1.10-2.48], whereas the immunomodulators did not reach statistical significance [OR = 2.4, 95 % CI = 0.87-6.47]. Subgroup analysis showed the autoimmune disorders did not significantly differ between CRS and RARS groups [OR = 1.0, 95 % CI = 0.5-2.1], or between the CRSsNP and CRSwNP groups [OR = 0.9, 95 % CI = 0.5-1.7].

CONCLUSION: Autoimmune disorders are associated with rhinosinusitis, both CRS and RARS, independently of other risk factors.

PMID:38113772 | DOI:10.1016/j.amjoto.2023.104177

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