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Characteristics and outcomes of children, adolescents and young adults with relapsed/refractory non-hodgkin lymphoma undergoing autologous stem cell transplant

BMC Cancer. 2023 Dec 20;23(1):1258. doi: 10.1186/s12885-023-11712-6.


BACKGROUND: There is paucity of data regarding outcomes of children, adolescents and young adults (CAYA) patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT).

METHODS: Patients aged 0-39 years undergoing first ASCT for NHL at MD Anderson Cancer Center between 2000 and 2020 were analyzed.

RESULTS: Two hundred twenty-one patients were included in the analysis, 129 (58%) were male and the median age was 32 (range 6-39) years. The most common histological subtypes were diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (44%), T-NHL (19%) and primary mediastinal B-Cell lymphoma (PMBCL) (19%). Younger patients (age ≤ 25) had lower incidence of DLBCL and higher incidence of PMBCL and T-NHL compared to older patients (age > 25) (P = 0.02). None of the younger patients had double hit (DH)/double expressor (DE) DLBCL, compared to 14 patients in the older age group (18%, P = 0.07). Considering the three main aggressive NHL subtypes (DLBCL, PMBCL and T-NHL), younger patients had numerically better 15-year post-transplant progression free survival (PFS) (67% vs. 54%) and overall survival (OS) (71% vs. 62%) compared to older patients, yet these differences did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.19 and P = 0.24, respectively). In multivariate analysis, not achieving a CR prior to ASCT was independently predictive of worse PFS [partial remission (PR) (HR, 3.9); stable disease (SD) (HR, 18.0), P = 0.03] and of worse OS [PR (HR, 4.2), SD (HR, 6.5) and progressive disease (HR, 4.7), P < 0.0001]. DH/DE status was an independent adverse predictor of PFS in multivariate analysis (HR 5.8, p = 0.03). Ten patients (4.5%) (all aged > 25 years) developed second primary malignancies (SPM), at a median of 34.4 (range, 1.0-196.6) months after ASCT, and SPM was the cause of death in five (50%) of them.

CONCLUSIONS: CAYA NHL patients aged ≤ 25 years who received ASCT presented a distinct NHL histology as compared to older CAYA patients, and none in this younger age group had DH/DE DLBCL. We observed a trend towards improved PFS and OS in younger patients. Disease status at ASCT was predictive of both PFS and OS. DH/DE status was an adverse predictor of PFS.

PMID:38124057 | DOI:10.1186/s12885-023-11712-6

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