PLoS One. 2023 Dec 21;18(12):e0294931. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0294931. eCollection 2023.
The marine sponge Hymeniacidon perlevis is a globally distributed and invasive species with extensive filter-feeding characteristics. The symbiotic relationship fostered between the sea sponge and the inhabiting microorganism is key in the production of metabolic enzymes which is the focus of this study. Sponge bacterial symbionts were grown on starch agar for 48hrs. Colourimetric analyses of amylase were conducted at 540nm using a spectrophotometric plate reader. Using an X-Bridge column (3.5μM, 4.6x150mm), 80/20 acetonitrile/water in 0.1% ammonium were the conditions used for the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses. Seven reducing sugars were used to optimise LC-MS to determine the presence of the crude enzyme formed. Not all the bacterial symbionts isolated from H perlevis produced alpha and beta amylases to break down starch. From the statistical mean of crude enzyme concentrations from the hydrolysis of starch by amylase, isolate seven had the highest optical density (OD) at 0.43475 while isolate twelve had the lowest OD at 0.141417. From the LC-MS analysis, out of the seven sugars, Glucose and maltose constituted > 65% of the reducing sugars formed from the hydrolysis of starch by the amylases. Isolates 3,6 and 7 produced 6.906 mg/l, 12.309 mg/l, and 5.909 mg/l of glucose, while isolates 3,4,5,6 and 7 produced 203.391 mg/l, 176.238 mg/l, 139.938 mg/l, 39.030 mg/l, and 18.809 mg/l of maltose, respectively. Isolate two had the highest amount of maltose at a concentration of 267.237 mg/l while isolate four had the highest amount of glucose concentration of 53.084 mg/l. Enzymes from marine sponge bacteria offer greater potential for a green and sustainable production process. Amylase extraction from bacterial symbionts in H perlevis is sustainable and should be supported. They can serve as reliable sources of revenue for enzyme industries, and applications in food industries and biotechnological processes.