J Biopharm Stat. 2023 Dec 22:1-20. doi: 10.1080/10543406.2023.2292209. Online ahead of print.
The goal of phase II clinical trials is to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of a new drug. Some investigators want to use the time-to-event endpoint as the primary endpoint of the phase II study to see the improvement of the therapeutic efficacy of a new drug in median survival time. Recently, median event time test (METT) has been proposed to provide a simple and straightforward rule which compares the observed median survival time with the prespecified threshold. However, median survival time would not be observed during the trial if the drug performs well and indeed cures most patients or if the accrual rate is so fast. To address the issues in clinical practice, we first propose a percentile event time test (PETT), which generalizes METT to any percentile of the survival time, and develop data-driven monitoring for phase II clinical trial designs based on PETT. We evaluate the performance of the method through simulations and illustrate the proposed method with a trial example.