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Evaluation of the clinical outcome of hypercalcemia of malignancy and concurrent azotemia in dogs with lymphoma

J Vet Intern Med. 2023 Dec 22. doi: 10.1111/jvim.16974. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: Hypercalcemia of malignancy (HM) secondary to lymphoma in dogs has the potential to cause renal injury.

HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Characterize outcomes related to acute kidney injury (AKI) secondary to HM. We hypothesized that dogs do suffer AKI regardless of HM severity at the time of lymphoma diagnosis or relapse.

ANIMALS: Retrospective study. Twenty-nine dogs with lymphoma, HM, and azotemia (International Renal Interest Society [IRIS] grade II or higher AKI) that underwent chemotherapy were identified at 2 veterinary institutions.

METHODS: Logistic regression and descriptive statistical analysis were performed to evaluate data for potential prognostic factors.

RESULTS: After initiating treatment, resolution of hypercalcemia and azotemia occurred in 100% (29/29) and 79.3% (23/29) of dogs, respectively. Resolution of azotemia was influenced by serum creatinine concentration (odds ratio [OR], 0.148; Confidence interval [CI], 0.03-0.734; P = .02) and total hypercalcemia (OR, 0.36; CI, 0.14-0.93; P = .04) at diagnosis, whereas blood urea nitrogen concentration, IRIS grade, sex, and whether or not dogs were hospitalized were not significant factors. At data analysis, 13.8% (4/29) of dogs were alive or lost to follow-up. Of those dead, 4 dogs (15%) had renal disease at the time of death, 2/4 having concurrent lymphoma progression.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Although AKI may be of clinical concern in dogs with HM secondary to lymphoma at diagnosis, death secondary to renal impairment appears to be infrequent.

PMID:38131263 | DOI:10.1111/jvim.16974

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