J Small Anim Pract. 2024 Jan 5. doi: 10.1111/jsap.13699. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence of hypocobalaminaemia in dogs with acute gastrointestinal diseases and to evaluate its relationship with disease severity and outcome.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of dogs presented for acute gastrointestinal signs that a serum cobalamin concentration measured between September 2019 and 2021 were included in this study. Hypocobalaminaemia was defined as serum cobalamin concentration <200 pmol/L, and low-normal cobalamin was defined as serum cobalamin concentration of 200 to 295 pmol/L. Duration of clinical signs prior to presentation, Acute Patient Physiologic and Laboratory Evaluation (APPLE) fast score, length of hospitalisation and outcome were recorded.
RESULTS: Thirty-three dogs were included. Seventeen dogs were diagnosed with acute gastrointestinal disease of unknown aetiology, seven dogs with parvoviral enteritis, three dogs with acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome and six dogs with miscellaneous diseases. The prevalence of hypocobalaminaemia in this population was 30.3% and low-normal cobalamin concentration was detected in 18.2% of dogs. There was no statistically significant relationship between the detection of hypocobalaminaemia or low-normal cobalamin and the duration of clinical signs before presentation, length of hospitalisation or Acute Patient Physiologic and Laboratory Evaluation fast score on admission. Mortality rate was 3%.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Hypocobalaminaemia and low-normal cobalamin are common findings in dogs with acute gastrointestinal diseases. The therapeutic significance and potential implications for prognosis of hypocobalaminaemia in these patients requires further investigation.