Nevin Manimala Statistics

Short-Term Effect of a Health Promotion Intervention Based on the Electronic 12-Hour Dietary Recall (e-12HR) Smartphone App on Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet Among Spanish Primary Care Professionals: Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2024 Jan 8;12:e49302. doi: 10.2196/49302.


BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has called for addressing the growing burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) by promoting healthy lifestyles among the population. Regarding patient health, primary care professionals (PCPs) are the first line of care who can positively influence patients’ behavior and lifestyle habits. However, a significant percentage of PCPs do not lead a healthy lifestyle. Therefore, addressing their health behaviors may be the key to substantially increasing health promotion advice in general practice. The Mediterranean diet has been extensively studied, and there is strong evidence of it being a dietary pattern for the prevention of NCDs, in addition to its significant environmental, sociocultural, and local economics benefits.

OBJECTIVE: This study focused only on the dietary aspect of the PCPs’ lifestyle. The primary objective was to evaluate the effect of using the Electronic 12-Hour Dietary Recall (e-12HR) smartphone app to improve diet, specifically to promote adherence to the Mediterranean diet (AMD), among PCPs. The secondary objectives were to establish the usability of the e-12HR app and to determine AMD among PCPs.

METHODS: An individual-level randomized, controlled, and single-blind clinical trial was conducted with 2 parallel groups: a control group (CG), using the nonfeedback version of the e-12HR app, and an intervention group (IG), using the feedback version of the e-12HR app. The level of human involvement was fully automated through the use of the app. There was a 28-day follow-up period. Participants were PCPs (medicine or nursing) recruited offline at one of the selected primary care centers (Andalusia, Spain, Southern Europe), of both sexes, over 18 years old, possessing a smartphone, and having smartphone literacy.

RESULTS: The study response rate was 73% (71 of 97 PCPs), with 27 (38%) women and 44 (62%) men: 40 (56%) PCPs in the CG and 31 (44%) in the IG. At baseline, AMD was medium (mean Mediterranean Diet Serving Score [MDSS] index 9.45, range 0-24), with 47 (66%) PCPs with a medium/high MDSS index. There were significant statistical improvements (CG vs IG, in favor of the IG) at week 4 (no significant statistical differences at baseline): +25.6% for the MDSS index (P=.002) and +213.1% for the percentage with a medium/high MDSS index (P=.001). In relation to specific food groups, there were significant statistical improvements for fruits (+33.8%, P=.02), vegetables (+352%, P=.001), nuts (+184%, P=.02), and legumes (+75.1%, P=.03). The responses to the usability rating questionnaire were satisfactory.

CONCLUSIONS: The results support recommending the use of the e-12HR app as a tool to contribute to improving diet and preventing NCDs among PCPs, while positively influencing patient dietary behavior and preventing diet-related NCDs among patients.


PMID:38190226 | DOI:10.2196/49302

By Nevin Manimala

Portfolio Website for Nevin Manimala