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Bovine Herpes Virus Type 1 (BoHV-1) seroprevalence, risk factor and Bovine Viral Diarrhoea (BVD) co-infection analysis from Ireland

Sci Rep. 2024 Jan 9;14(1):867. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-50433-5.


Surveillance of endemic pathogens is essential for disease control, providing an evidence base for policy and advice. Bovine Herpes Virus Type 1 (BoHV-1), the causative agent of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR), has been found to have high seroprevalence within the Irish cattle population. The aim of the present study was to establish seroprevalence levels for culled cattle in Ireland aged < 30 months and to establish whether BVD exposure and other factors was associated with BoHV-1 exposure. We employed random effects logit models coupled with repeated bootstrap sampling to provide robust estimates. The final dataset contained results for 5273 animals tested over two study years, 2018 and 2020. The animal-level seroprevalence of BoHV-1 was 21.43% (1130/5273; 95%CI: 20.32-22.53%). Univariable analysis suggested that BoHV-1 seropositivity risk was associated with BVDV serodiagnosis status, age, sex, year sampled, herd type, herd-size, and metrics of movement into the herd. Final random-effects multivariable models suggested increased risk associated with increasing herd size of the last herd, movements made by animals during the previous year, and the year the animal was sampled. Despite BVDV status and sex being retained in the final model, repeated bootstrap sampling of the regression model to estimate biased-corrected 95%CI suggested that these associations were not robust. The overall apparent prevalence of BoHV-1 exposure for culled cattle in Ireland declined in 2020 relative to 2018 (from 23.32 to 17.61%). Herd-size and the movement of animals were found to be important factors associated with animal-level risk, but there was less statistical support for sex-based or BVDV status associations.

PMID:38195809 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-023-50433-5

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