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Amelogenin-inspired peptide, calcium phosphate solution, fluoride and their synergistic effect on enamel biomimetic remineralization: an in vitro pH-cycling model

BMC Oral Health. 2024 Feb 27;24(1):279. doi: 10.1186/s12903-024-04008-z.


BACKGROUND: Several methods were introduced for enamel biomimetic remineralization that utilize a biomimetic analogue to interact and absorb bioavailable calcium and phosphate ions and induce crystal nucleation on demineralized enamel. Amelogenin is the most predominant enamel matrix protein that is involved in enamel biomineralization. It plays a major role in developing the enamel’s hierarchical microstructure. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the ability of an amelogenin-inspired peptide to promote the remineralization potential of fluoride and a supersaturated calcium phosphate solution in treating artificially induced enamel carious lesions under pH-cycling regimen.

METHODS: Fifty enamel slices were prepared with a window (4*4 mm2 ) on the surface. Five samples were set as control healthy enamel and 45 samples were subjected to demineralization for 3 days. Another 5 samples were set as control demineralized enamel and 40 enamel samples were assigned into 8 experimental groups (n=5) (P/I, P/II, P/III, P/AS, NP/I, NP/II, NP/III and NP/AS) according to peptide treatment (peptide P or non-peptide NP) and remineralizing solution used (I; calcium phosphate solution, II; calcium phosphate fluoride solution, III; fluoride solution and AS; artificial saliva). Samples were then subjected to demineralization/remineralization cycles for 9 days. Samples in all experimental groups were evaluated using Raman spectroscopy for mineral content recovery percentage, microhardness and nanoindentation as healthy, demineralized enamel and after pH-cycling. Data were statistically analysed using two-way repeated measures Anova followed by Bonferroni-corrected post hoc test for pairwise multiple comparisons between groups. Statistical significance was set at p= 0.05. Additionally, XRD, FESEM and EDXS were used for crystal orientation, surface morphology and elemental analysis after pH-cycling.

RESULTS: Nanocrystals clumped in a directional manner were detected in peptide-treated groups. P/II showed the highest significant mean values in mineral content recovery (63.31%), microhardness (268.81±6.52 VHN), elastic modulus (88.74±2.71 GPa), nanohardness (3.08±0.59 GPa) and the best crystal orientation with I002/I300 (1.87±0.08).

CONCLUSION: Despite pH changes, the tested peptide was capable of remineralizing enamel with ordered crystals. Moreover, the supplementary use of calcium phosphate fluoride solution with peptide granted an enhancement in enamel mechanical properties after remineralization.

PMID:38413983 | DOI:10.1186/s12903-024-04008-z

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