Nevin Manimala Statistics

Relationship of thyroid dysfunction and its manifestations in diabetes mellitus patients in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2024 Mar;28(6):2263-2271. doi: 10.26355/eurrev_202403_35730.


OBJECTIVE: Both diabetes mellitus (DM) and thyroid dysfunction (TD) are endocrinopathies that are frequently inclined to coexist in patients. Most studies avoid explicitly supporting or opposing testing thyroid function for diabetic patients as a baseline. The association between hypothyroidism and diabetes is considerable when assessing thyroid functions in diabetic individuals based on clinical suspicion. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the relationship between thyroid dysfunction and its manifestations in DM patients in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study included 301 DM subjects. A questionnaire divided into two sections was administered to all participants. The first section involved questions about diabetes control, monitoring, and disease severity. The second section included questions about thyroid disease and the 14-item Hypothyroidism Clinical Prediction (HCP) score we created for our research. The HCP score was obtained by summing up all discrete scores for different symptoms of hypothyroidism. ROC curve analysis was used to assess the predicted hypothyroidism cases based on the most precise cut-off point for the HCP overall score (highest sensitivity and specificity). HCP discriminant ability for detecting hypothyroid cases was assessed considering the Area Under the Curve (AUC) as a measurement.

RESULTS: Almost 53 (17.6%) diabetes mellitus subjects were previously diagnosed with hypothyroidism. Comparatively, regarding the given cut-off point, the total number of predicted hypothyroidism cases using the HCP score was 149 (49.5%). The most reported symptoms included tiredness (75%), followed by irritability (72%), and difficulty in losing weight (65%). Hypothyroidism was detected/predicted among 60.1% of female diabetics vs. 44.2% of males with recorded statistical significance (p=.006).

CONCLUSIONS: This study further proves a significant association between diabetes and hypothyroidism in Saudi Arabia. We recommend periodic screening for thyroid dysfunction in the diabetic population in specific cases; since some patients with diabetes are more likely to have hypothyroidism based on their clinical presentation.

PMID:38567589 | DOI:10.26355/eurrev_202403_35730

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