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Characterization of Demographic, Clinical, and Laboratory Risk Factors for Stroke in a Tertiary Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Cureus. 2024 Apr 14;16(4):e58266. doi: 10.7759/cureus.58266. eCollection 2024 Apr.


Background Stroke is a major cause of death and long-term disability worldwide, with varying incidence and risk factors across different populations. This study aims to analyze demographic, clinical, and laboratory risk factors for stroke among the Saudi Arabian population to enhance the understanding of its behavior and associated mortality. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed data from 3586 patients diagnosed with hemorrhagic or non-hemorrhagic stroke at King Fahad Medical City from January 1, 2020, to November 11, 2022. We collected data on demographic variables, past medical history, social history, nationality, and laboratory components. Statistical analyses were performed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 27.0. (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.), with significance set at p<0.05. Results The study population was predominantly male (57.86%) and within the age group of 51 to 80 years (58.8%). A significant portion of patients were Saudi nationals (99.6%), with hypertension (50.2%) and diabetes (40.4%) being the most common comorbidities. Laboratory abnormalities related to sodium and potassium levels were strongly linked to mortality rates. Notably, ischemic stroke was the most common type across all age groups, except for patients under age 16, where hemorrhagic stroke was more prevalent. Conclusions Our findings reveal significant associations between stroke risk factors and mortality within the Saudi Arabian population, highlighting the impact of hypertension, diabetes, and electrolyte imbalances. The study underscores the need for targeted stroke prevention and management strategies in Saudi Arabia, aligning with global trends to mitigate the burden of this disease.

PMID:38752087 | PMC:PMC11094348 | DOI:10.7759/cureus.58266

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