Nevin Manimala Statistics

Hospice Readmission, Hospitalization, and Hospital Death Among Patients Discharged Alive from Hospice

JAMA Netw Open. 2024 May 1;7(5):e2411520. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2024.11520.


IMPORTANCE: Transitions in care settings following live discharge from hospice care are burdensome for patients and families. Factors contributing to risk of burdensome transitions following hospice discharge are understudied.

OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with 2 burdensome transitions following hospice live discharge, as defined by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This population-based retrospective cohort study included a 20% random sample of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries using 2014 to 2019 Medicare claims data. Data were analyzed from April 22, 2023, to March 4, 2024.

EXPOSURE: Live hospice discharge.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Multivariable logistic regression examined associations among patient, health care provision, and organizational characteristics with 2 burdensome transitions after live hospice discharge (outcomes): type 1, hospice discharge, hospitalization within 2 days, and hospice readmission within 2 days; and type 2, hospice discharge, hospitalization within 2 days, and hospital death.

RESULTS: This study included 115 072 Medicare beneficiaries discharged alive from hospice (mean [SD] age, 84.4 [6.6] years; 71892 [62.5%] female; 5462 [4.8%] Hispanic, 9822 [8.5%] non-Hispanic Black, and 96 115 [83.5%] non-Hispanic White). Overall, 10 381 individuals (9.0%) experienced a type 1 burdensome transition and 3144 individuals (2.7%) experienced a type 2 burdensome transition. In adjusted models, factors associated with higher odds of burdensome transitions included identifying as non-Hispanic Black (type 1: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.47; 95% CI, 1.36-1.58; type 2: aOR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.51-1.90), hospice stays of 7 days or fewer (type 1: aOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.06-1.21; type 2: aOR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.53-1.90), and care from a for-profit hospice (type 1: aOR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.62-1.96; type 2: aOR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.15-1.52). Nursing home residence (type 1: aOR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.61-0.72; type 2: aOR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.40-0.54) and hospice stays of 180 days or longer (type 1: aOR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.59-0.68; type 2: aOR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.52-0.69) were associated with lower odds of burdensome transitions.

CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: This retrospective cohort study of burdensome transitions following live hospice discharge found that non-Hispanic Black race, short hospice stays, and care from for-profit hospices were associated with higher odds of experiencing a burdensome transition. These findings suggest that changes to clinical practice and policy may reduce the risk of burdensome transitions, such as hospice discharge planning that is incentivized, systematically applied, and tailored to needs of patients at greater risk for burdensome transitions.

PMID:38753329 | DOI:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2024.11520

By Nevin Manimala

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