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Seroprevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Wild Pigs (Sus scrofa) in 17 States in the USA

J Wildl Dis. 2024 May 16. doi: 10.7589/JWD-D-23-00066. Online ahead of print.


Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are among the most detrimental invasive species in the USA. They are damaging to crops and agriculture, pose a public health risk as reservoirs of zoonotic pathogens, and may also spread disease to livestock. One pathogen identified in wild pigs is bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a virus that causes an economically important disease of cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus). We sought to determine the BVDV seroprevalence in wild pigs in 17 states across the US and to determine whether age category, sex, or location were associated with a positive antibody titer. Serum samples from 945 wild pigs were collected from 17 US states. Virus neutralization assays were performed to determine antibody titers against BVDV-1b and BVDV-2a. Total BVDV seroprevalence for the study area was 5.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.11-8.89). Seroprevalence across all evaluated states was determined to be 4.4% (95% CI, 2.48-6.82) for BVDV-1b and 3.6% (95% CI, 1.54-5.60) for BVDV-2a. The seroprevalence for individual states varied from 0% to 16.7%. There was no statistical difference in median antibody titer for BVDV-1b or BVDV-2a by sex or age category. State seroprevalences for both BVDV-1b and BVDV-2a were associated with wild pig population estimates for those states.

PMID:38752344 | DOI:10.7589/JWD-D-23-00066

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