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The Impact of Sex on Antiplatelet and Anticoagulant Thromboprophylaxis in Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease Post-revascularization

Ann Surg. 2024 Jun 11. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000006375. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective study was to 1) objectively quantify the impact of sex on platelet function in patients with PAD taking antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications and 2) to develop and test a personalized, iterative algorithm which personalizes thromboprophylaxis that incorporates platelet function testing.

SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Women with Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) have worse outcomes as compared to their male counterparts in spite of having lower risk factors. This health disparity may be mitigated by personalizing thromboprophylaxis regimens.

METHODS: Patients undergoing revascularization were enrolled. Serial thromboelastography (TEG) and TEG with Platelet Mapping (TEG-PM) was performed up to 6-months post-operatively to determine objective coagulation profiles. In a subset of patients, the Antiplatelet Coagulation Exactness (ACE) algorithm was implemented where patients were iteratively evaluated with TEG and given antiplatelet medications to maintain platelet inhibition at >29%. Statistical analysis was performed using unpaired t-test, ANOVA and Fisher’s exact test.

RESULTS: One hundred and eighty-one patients met study criteria. 58(32%) patients were females and 123(68%) were males. In the Aspirin cohort, females showed significantly greater clot strength as Maximum Amplitude – Arachidonic Acid (MAAA) and significantly lower platelet inhibition than males: [37.26 vs.32.38, P<0.01] and [52.95% vs.61.65%, P<0.05], respectively. In the Clopidogrel cohort, females showed higher Maximum Amplitude – Adenosine Diphosphate (MAADP) [42.58 vs.40.35, P=NS] compared to males. Females on dual antiplatelet therapy had higher MAADP [39.74 vs.35.07, P=NS] and lower platelet inhibition [45.25% vs.54.99%, P=NS] than males. The incidence of thrombosis of the revascularized segment, defined as thrombotic event, was objectively identified on an arterial duplex. Women showed significantly higher thrombotic events than men [22.95% vs.10.57%, P<0.05] on the same medication. In our pilot study, implementation of the ACE algorithm led to a significant decrease in the thrombosis rate (3%), including non-thrombotic events for females, vs. the historic thrombotic rate (22%) from our institution.

CONCLUSIONS: Women with PAD exhibited higher platelet reactivity, clot strength, and reduced platelet inhibition in response to antiplatelet therapy. The use of the ACE algorithm to tailor antiplatelet medication in patients with PAD post-revascularization, resulted in a significant decrease in thrombotic event rates. This may serve as an opportune way to mitigate outcome sex-specific disparities caused by inadequate thromboprophylaxis in women.

PMID:38860382 | DOI:10.1097/SLA.0000000000006375

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