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Effect of apical foraminal enlargement on postoperative pain and inflammatory markers in asymtomatic single-rooted mandibular teeth with apical periodontitis – An in vivo randomized controlled trial

J Conserv Dent Endod. 2024 Jun;27(6):584-590. doi: 10.4103/JCDE.JCDE_138_24. Epub 2024 Jun 6.


AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aims to assess the effect of apical foraminal enlargement on inflammatory markers and pain in patients with asymptomatic single-rooted mandibular teeth with apical periodontitis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 60 patients based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Before beginning root canal treatment (RCT), a blood sample was obtained from the antecubital fossa to evaluate the inflammatory markers, C-reactive protein (CRP), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Access opening was done and initial irrigation was done. Working length (WL) was determined with an electronic apex locator and verified with a radiograph. In the control group, the determined WL was maintained, while in the experimental group, the WL was set till the apical foramen. Biomechanical preparation was done in both groups till F2 or F3 based on the initial apical file, followed by final irrigation and obturation based on the master apical file size. Patients were given a Visual Analog Scale to record pain sensations at 24, 48, and 72 h postoperative. After 72 h, patients were recalled for follow-up appointments, and blood was taken from the antecubital fossa again to evaluate inflammatory markers.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The resultant findings for the reduction in inflammatory markers before and after RCT with or without foraminal enlargement were statistically analyzed using the Student’s t-test. The pain was statistically examined with one-way “analysis of variance” and Tukey’s post hoc test for inter-group comparison of pain. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. The statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 23 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). As pain in the control groups is zero before and after RCT, statistical analysis is not required as the overall pain score is zero.

RESULTS: The P values of the CRP and ESR of the control group were 0.02 and 0.03, respectively, which indicates it is significant whereas the P values of the ESR and CRP of the experimental group were 0.0002 and 0.0008 which indicates it is highly significant. Results indicate that the experimental group is more effective compared to the control group in reducing inflammatory markers. Pain in the control group after RCT was zero at the end of 24, 48, and 72 h. In the experimental group, where RCT was done with apical foraminal enlargement, mild pain was present at the end of 24 h which gradually decreased at the end of 48 h and no pain was reported at the end of 72 h.

CONCLUSION: Reduction in inflammatory markers was more effective in RCT with apical enlargement than without apical enlargement. RCT with apical enlargement caused mild pain in the patients immediately after treatment which gradually decreased over time.

PMID:38989502 | PMC:PMC11232762 | DOI:10.4103/JCDE.JCDE_138_24

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