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Risk of de novo esophageal cancer in liver transplant recipients: systematic review and meta-analysis

J Gastrointest Oncol. 2024 Jun 30;15(3):851-861. doi: 10.21037/jgo-24-66. Epub 2024 Jun 27.


BACKGROUND: De novo malignancy is the leading cause of death in liver transplant recipients. Numerous studies consistently show a significantly increased risk of esophageal cancer after liver transplantation. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the incidence and risk factors associated with de novo esophageal cancer post-liver transplantation.

METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Medline and Cochrane Library were systematically searched. Screening, quality assessment, and data extraction were completed. The search was completed in November 2023. Standardized incidence rates (SIRs) were used to measure the risk of esophageal cancer among liver transplant recipients, along with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). A random effects model was employed for comprehensive analysis, and results were presented using a forest plot. Sensitivity analysis was undertaken by systematically excluding individual studies one by one, while potential publication bias was assessed using funnel plots and Egger’s test. Additionally, subgroup analyses were also performed to explore sources of heterogeneity.

RESULTS: Out of 1,037 articles collected, only twelve met the inclusion criteria after rigorous screening. Statistical analysis showed a significantly increased risk of esophageal cancer following liver transplantation compared to the general population (SIR =6.75, 95% CI: 4.35-10.46).

CONCLUSIONS: The risk of esophageal cancer significantly increases after liver transplantation, so regular gastrointestinal endoscopy is necessary after the procedure.

PMID:38989401 | PMC:PMC11231872 | DOI:10.21037/jgo-24-66

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