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Nevin Manimala Statistics

MICROSCOPE Mission: Final Results of the Test of the Equivalence Principle

Phys Rev Lett. 2022 Sep 16;129(12):121102. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.129.121102.

ABSTRACT

The MICROSCOPE mission was designed to test the weak equivalence principle (WEP), stating the equality between the inertial and the gravitational masses, with a precision of 10^{-15} in terms of the Eötvös ratio η. Its experimental test consisted of comparing the accelerations undergone by two collocated test masses of different compositions as they orbited the Earth, by measuring the electrostatic forces required to keep them in equilibrium. This was done with ultrasensitive differential electrostatic accelerometers onboard a drag-free satellite. The mission lasted two and a half years, cumulating five months worth of science free-fall data, two-thirds with a pair of test masses of different compositions-titanium and platinum alloys-and the last third with a reference pair of test masses of the same composition-platinum. We summarize the data analysis, with an emphasis on the characterization of the systematic uncertainties due to thermal instabilities and on the correction of short-lived events which could mimic a WEP violation signal. We found no violation of the WEP, with the Eötvös parameter of the titanium and platinum pair constrained to η(Ti,Pt)=[-1.5±2.3(stat)±1.5(syst)]×10^{-15} at 1σ in statistical errors.

PMID:36179190 | DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.129.121102

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Abnormal Esophageal Clearance Identified During Modified Barium Swallow Study in an Acute Poststroke Cohort

Am J Speech Lang Pathol. 2022 Sep 30:1-20. doi: 10.1044/2022_AJSLP-22-00029. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Dysphagia impacts many poststroke survivors with wide-ranging prevalence in the acute and chronic phases. One relatively unexplored manifestation of poststroke swallowing impairment is that of primary or co-occurring esophageal dysphagia. The incidence of esophageal dysphagia in this population is unknown despite the shared neuroanatomy and physiology with the oropharynx. We aimed to determine the presence of abnormal esophageal clearance in an acute poststroke sample using the Modified Barium Swallow Impairment Profile (MBSImP) Component 17 (esophageal clearance) as our outcome measure.

METHOD: We performed a retrospective, cross-sectional, cohort study of 57 poststroke patients with acute, first-ever, ischemic strokes. All participants received a modified barium swallow study (MBSS) using the MBSImP protocol and scoring metrics. Swallowing impairment was determined using a combination of MBSImP scores and Penetration-Aspiration Scale scores. Swallowing outcome measures were collected including Functional Oral Intake Scale and International Dysphagia Diet Standardization Initiative (IDDSI) scores. We performed tests of association and logistic regression analysis to determine if statistically significant associations exist between judgments of esophageal clearance and other swallowing impairments and/or swallowing outcome measures.

RESULTS: In our study of poststroke patients who received an MBSS as part of their care, 57.9% had abnormal esophageal clearance. Statistically significant associations were also identified in measures of pharyngeal physiology (MBSImP scores) and swallowing outcome measures (IDDSI scores and alternate means of nutrition).

CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal esophageal clearance was identified in greater than half of our poststroke patients. There is a dearth of scientific research regarding esophageal function poststroke. While esophageal visualization during the MBSS is not diagnostic of esophageal impairment, it may serve as an indicator for those poststroke patients who require dedicated esophageal testing to best determine the full nature of their swallowing pathophysiology and make the most effective treatment recommendations.

PMID:36179218 | DOI:10.1044/2022_AJSLP-22-00029

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Coherence as a Resource for Shor’s Algorithm

Phys Rev Lett. 2022 Sep 16;129(12):120501. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.129.120501.

ABSTRACT

Shor’s factoring algorithm provides a superpolynomial speedup over all known classical factoring algorithms. Here, we address the question of which quantum properties fuel this advantage. We investigate a sequential variant of Shor’s algorithm with a fixed overall structure and identify the role of coherence for this algorithm quantitatively. We analyze this protocol in the framework of dynamical resource theories, which capture the resource character of operations that can create and detect coherence. This allows us to derive a lower and an upper bound on the success probability of the protocol, which depend on rigorously defined measures of coherence as a dynamical resource. We compare these bounds with the classical limit of the protocol and conclude that within the fixed structure that we consider, coherence is the quantum resource that determines its performance by bounding the success probability from below and above. Therefore, we shine new light on the fundamental role of coherence in quantum computation.

PMID:36179183 | DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.129.120501

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Hidden Phase of the Spin-Boson Model

Phys Rev Lett. 2022 Sep 16;129(12):120406. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.129.120406.

ABSTRACT

A quantum two-level system immersed in a sub-Ohmic bath experiences enhanced low-frequency quantum statistical fluctuations which render the nonequilibrium quantum dynamics highly non-Markovian. Upon using the numerically exact time-evolving matrix product operator approach, we investigate the phase diagram of the polarization dynamics. In addition to the known phases of damped coherent oscillatory dynamics and overdamped decay, we identify a new third region in the phase diagram for strong coupling showing an aperiodic behavior. We determine the corresponding phase boundaries. The dynamics of the quantum two-state system herein is not coherent by itself but slaved to the oscillatory bath dynamics.

PMID:36179188 | DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.129.120406

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Maxwell Demon that Can Work at Macroscopic Scales

Phys Rev Lett. 2022 Sep 16;129(12):120602. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.129.120602.

ABSTRACT

Maxwell’s demons work by rectifying thermal fluctuations. They are not expected to function at macroscopic scales where fluctuations become negligible and dynamics become deterministic. We propose an electronic implementation of an autonomous Maxwell’s demon that indeed stops working in the regular macroscopic limit as the dynamics becomes deterministic. However, we find that if the power supplied to the demon is scaled up appropriately, the deterministic limit is avoided and the demon continues to work. The price to pay is a decreasing thermodynamic efficiency. Our Letter suggests that novel strategies may be found in nonequilibrium settings to bring to the macroscale nontrivial effects so far only observed at microscopic scales.

PMID:36179174 | DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.129.120602

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Using Chatbot as an Alternative Approach for In-Person Tooth Brushing Training During the COVID-19 Pandemic

J Med Internet Res. 2022 Sep 27. doi: 10.2196/39218. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is recommended that caregivers receive oral health education and in-person training to improve tooth brushing for young children. To strengthen oral health education before COVID-19, the 21-Day FunDee chatbot with in-person tooth brushing training for caregivers was employed. During the pandemic, however, practical experience was difficult to implement. Therefore, the 30-Day FunDee chatbot was created to extend the coverage of chatbots from 21 to 30 days by incorporating more videos on tooth brushing demonstrations and dialogue. This was a secondary data comparison of two chatbots in similar rural areas of Pattani province, Maikan district (Study I) and Maelan district (Study II).

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and usability of two chatbots, 21-Day FunDee (Study I) and 30-Day FunDee (Study II), based on the protection-motivation theory (PMT). Furthermore, the study explored the feasibility of employing 30-Day FunDee chatbot to increase tooth brushing behaviors for caregivers in oral hygiene care for children aged 6-36 months without in-person training during the COVID-19 pandemic.

METHODS: A pre-post design was used in both studies. The effectiveness of each chatbot was evaluated among caregivers in terms of oral hygiene practices, knowledge, and oral health care perceptions based on PMT. In Study I, participants received in-person training and a 21-day chatbot course during October 2018 to February 2019. In Study II, participants received only daily chatbot programming for 30 days during December 2021 to February 2022. Data was gathered at baseline of each study and at 30 and 60 days after the start of Study I and Study II, respectively. Only Study I evaluated the plaque score. Open-ended questions in chatbot programs were used to assess the usability of chatbots at the end of their interventions. Only Study II included an in-depth interview. The two studies were compared to determine the feasibility of using the 30-Day FunDee chatbot by an alternative method of in-person training.

RESULTS: There were 71 pairs of participants in total, 37 for Study I and 34 for Study II. Both chatbots significantly improved overall knowledge (P<.001; 0.73 (SD 0.21), 0.94 (SD 0.09)) (P=.001; 0.53 (SD 0.26), 0.66 (SD 0.23)), overall oral health care perceptions based on PMT P<.001; 0.58 (SD 0.19), 0.86 (SD 0.16), P<.001; 0.53 (SD 0.26), 0.83 (SD 0.12), and tooth brushing for children by caregivers (P=.02, P=.04) in Study I and Study II, respectively. Only Study I differed statistically significant for frequency of tooth brushing at least twice a day (P=.002) and perceived vulnerability (P=.003; 0.46 (SD 0.51), 0.78 (SD 0.42)). Overall chatbot satisfactions were reported at the highest level at 9.2 (SD 0.9) and 8.6 (SD 1.2) for Study I and Study II, respectively. In Study I, plaque levels differed significantly. (P<0.001; 0.48 (SD 0.33), 0.18 (SD 0.21).

CONCLUSIONS: This was the first study using a chatbot in oral health education. Two chatbot programs established their effectiveness and usability in promoting oral hygiene care of caregivers for young children. The 30-Day FunDee chatbot showed the possibility to improve tooth brushing skills without requiring in-person training.

PMID:36179147 | DOI:10.2196/39218

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Quantitative analysis of tissue area of endoscopic ultrasound-guided liver biopsy specimens using 19-gauge fine-needle biopsy needle in patients with diffuse liver disease: a single-center retrospective study

J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci. 2022 Sep 30. doi: 10.1002/jhbp.1244. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided liver biopsy (EUS-LB) is a novel liver biopsy technique. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of EUS-LB in comparison with percutaneous liver biopsy (PLB).

METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated the safety and efficacy of EUS-LB using a 19-gauge fine needle biopsy (FNB) needle compared with PLB using a spring-loaded 16-gauge needle in patients with diffuse liver disease at our hospital from April 2017 to December 2020. The primary outcomes included the total hepatic tissue surface area and the total number of portal tracts. Secondary outcomes included the success and adverse event rates.

RESULTS: Twenty patients each underwent EUS-LB and PLB. There was no statistical difference in the sum of liver tissue surface area (22 mm2 vs. 22.6 mm2 , P = 0.910) and the total number of portal tracts (29 vs. 25, P = 0.916). The success rate was 95% (19/20) for EUS-LB and 100% (20/20) for PLB (P = 1). There were two adverse events in the PLB group but none in the EUS-LB group (P = 0.487).

CONCLUSIONS: EUS-LB using FNB has an optimal tissue yield and success rate and is safe compared to PLB. Thus, EUS-LB may be a new alternative to PLB.

PMID:36179127 | DOI:10.1002/jhbp.1244

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Meta-Analysis Reveals That Absolute Binding Free-Energy Calculations Approach Chemical Accuracy

J Med Chem. 2022 Sep 30. doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.2c00796. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Systematic and quantitative analysis of the reliability of formally exact methods that in silico calculate absolute protein-ligand binding free energies remains lacking. Here, we provide, for the first time, evidence-based information on the reliability of these methods by statistically studying 853 cases from 34 different research groups through meta-analysis. The results show that formally exact methods approach chemical accuracy (error = 1.58 kcal/mol), even if people are challenging difficult tasks such as blind drug screening in recent years. The geometrical-pathway-based methods prove to possess a better convergence ability than the alchemical ones, while the latter have a larger application range. We also reveal the importance of always using the latest force fields to guarantee reliability and discuss the pros and cons of turning to an implicit solvent model in absolute binding free-energy calculations. Moreover, based on the meta-analysis, an evidence-based guideline for in silico binding free-energy calculations is provided.

PMID:36179112 | DOI:10.1021/acs.jmedchem.2c00796

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Duration of immune protection of SARS-CoV-2 natural infection against reinfection

J Travel Med. 2022 Sep 30:taac109. doi: 10.1093/jtm/taac109. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The future of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic hinges on virus evolution and duration of immune protection of natural infection against reinfection. We investigated duration of protection afforded by natural infection, the effect of viral immune evasion on duration of protection, and protection against severe reinfection, in Qatar, between February 28, 2020 and June 5, 2022.

METHODS: Three national, matched, retrospective cohort studies were conducted to compare incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity among unvaccinated persons with a documented SARS-CoV-2 primary infection, to incidence among those infection-naïve and unvaccinated. Associations were estimated using Cox proportional-hazard regression models.

RESULTS: Effectiveness of pre-Omicron primary infection against pre-Omicron reinfection was 85.5% (95% CI: 84.8-86.2%). Effectiveness peaked at 90.5% (95% CI: 88.4-92.3%) in the 7th month after the primary infection, but waned to ~ 70% by the 16th month. Extrapolating this waning trend using a Gompertz curve suggested an effectiveness of 50% in the 22nd month and < 10% by the 32nd month. Effectiveness of pre-Omicron primary infection against Omicron reinfection was 38.1% (95% CI: 36.3-39.8%) and declined with time since primary infection. A Gompertz curve suggested an effectiveness of < 10% by the 15th month. Effectiveness of primary infection against severe, critical, or fatal COVID-19 reinfection was 97.3% (95% CI: 94.9-98.6%), irrespective of the variant of primary infection or reinfection, and with no evidence for waning. Similar results were found in sub-group analyses for those ≥50 years of age.

CONCLUSIONS: Protection of natural infection against reinfection wanes and may diminish within a few years. Viral immune evasion accelerates this waning. Protection against severe reinfection remains very strong, with no evidence for waning, irrespective of variant, for over 14 months after primary infection.

PMID:36179099 | DOI:10.1093/jtm/taac109

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

3M™ Petrifilm™ Rapid Yeast and Mold Count Plate Method for the Enumeration of Yeast and Mold on Selected Surfaces: AOAC Official Method 2014.05

J AOAC Int. 2022 Sep 30:qsac118. doi: 10.1093/jaoacint/qsac118. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 3M™ Petrifilm™ Rapid Yeast and Mold Count (RYM) Plate contains nutrients supplemented with antibiotics, a cold-water-soluble gelling agent, and an indicator system that facilitates yeast and mold enumeration in 48-60 h.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate the 3M Petrifilm RYM Plate in a matrix extension study for the enumeration of yeast and mold on stainless steel, sealed concrete, and rubber surfaces.

METHODS: The 3M Petrifilm RYM Plate was compared to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual, Ch 18: Yeasts, Molds and Mycotoxins in a paired matrix study for enumeration of yeast and mold on stainless steel, sealed concrete, and rubber environmental surfaces.

RESULTS: The 3M Petrifilm RYM Plate demonstrated equivalent performance to the reference method for enumeration of yeast and mold from stainless steel, sealed concrete, and rubber environmental surfaces. There were no significant statistical differences between the 3M Petrifilm RYM Plate and reference method results for the three matrixes evaluated.

CONCLUSIONS: The 3M Petrifilm RYM Plate is an effective plating method for enumerating yeast and mold when analyzing stainless steel, sealed concrete and rubber surfaces.

HIGHLIGHT: The 3M Petrifilm RYM Plate method allows the user to obtain accurate results within 48-60 h in the matrixes evaluated for the presence of yeast and mold when incubated at 25 ± 1 °C or 28 ± 1 °C. Interpretation and colony counting was straight forward and the 3M Petrifilm RYM Plate method required no additional agar or Petri dishes, creating an easier workflow by cutting down on supplies, sample plating time, and most noticeably, occupying less space in the incubator.

PMID:36179093 | DOI:10.1093/jaoacint/qsac118