Breastfeed Med. 2022 Jun 8. doi: 10.1089/bfm.2021.0307. Online ahead of print.
Background: There is limited evidence on the relationship between hookah use and breastfeeding. This study examines the association between a history of hookah use and breastfeeding duration among women in the United States. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study examined 96,392 women from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System (PRAMS) 2016-2019 data. The main outcome of interest was any breastfeeding for at least 3 months. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, and multivariable regression analyses were performed. Results: Overall, 68.3% of women breastfed for at least 3 months and 4.6% reported using hookah in the last 2 years. Women who reported using hookah in the last 2 years were significantly less likely to breastfeed for at least 3 months compared with women who did not report using hookah in the last 2 years (56.0% versus 68.9%; p < 0.001). In the multivariable model, the odds of breastfeeding for at least 3 months were significantly lower in women who used hookah in the last 2 years compared with those who did not use hookah; odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 0.82 (0.74-0.92; p < 0.001). Additionally, the odds of breastfeeding for at least 3 months were significantly lower for dual users of hookah and cigarettes 0.48 (0.33-0.68; p < 0.001). Conclusion: A history of hookah use is associated with early weaning, independent of potential confounders. This finding suggests the need for educating women about the negative consequences of hookah use on breastfeeding during preconception, prenatal, and postpartum care encounters.