Biol Sex Differ. 2022 Jun 15;13(1):30. doi: 10.1186/s13293-022-00440-4.
BACKGROUND: The sexual dimorphism represents one of the triggers of the metabolic disparities between the organisms, advising about wild implications in research or diagnostics contexts. Despite the mounting recognition of the importance of sex consideration in the biomedical fields, the identification of male- and female-specific metabolic signatures has not been achieved.
MAIN BODY: This review pointed the focus on the metabolic differences related to the sex, evidenced by metabolomics studies performed on healthy populations, with the leading aim of understanding how the sex influences the baseline metabolome. The main shared signatures and the apparent dissimilarities between males and females were extracted and highlighted from the metabolome of the most commonly analyzed biological fluids, such as serum, plasma, and urine. Furthermore, the influence of age and the significant interactions between sex and age have been taken into account.
CONCLUSIONS: The recognition of sex patterns in human metabolomics has been defined in diverse biofluids. The detection of sex- and age-related differences in the metabolome of healthy individuals are helpful for translational applications from the bench to the bedside to set targeted diagnostic and prevention approaches in the context of personalized medicine.