Actas Urol Esp (Engl Ed). 2022 Jun 15:S2173-5786(22)00028-2. doi: 10.1016/j.acuroe.2022.03.002. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVE: It has been described that thymoglobulin could increase the risk of infections and malignancies, in comparison to basiliximab. Leukopenia and thrombocytopenia are also more common within the first days after transplantation among thymoglobulin patients. Our objective was to analyze bleeding complications in this subset of patients.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bleeding complications were evaluated among 515 renal transplants carried out at our institution between 2012 and 2018. We compared patients treated with thymoglobulin (Group 1, N=91) with those treated with basiliximab (Group 2, N=424).
RESULTS: We found differences in platelet decrease: 95,142.2 (55,339.6) in Group 1 and 52,364.3 (69,116.6) in Group 2 (P=0.001), number of patients with severe thrombocytopenia (<75,000/mm3) (20.8% vs. 3.7%, P=0.001), number of blood units transfused (3.25 (0.572) vs. 2.2 (0.191, P=0.028) and percentage of patients that required surgery due to bleeding (18.2% vs. 7.7%, P=0.046). In a multiple lineal regression multivariable analysis (dependent variable was number of blood units transfused), only age [OR 0.037, 95% CI (0.003-0.070)] and type of immunosuppression [OR 1.592, 95% CI (1.38-2.84)] showed statistical significance.
CONCLUSIONS: The use of thymoglobulin in the perioperative transplantation period could increase bleeding complications. In our series, in the group of patients with thymoglobulin, severe thrombocytopenia was 6 times more frequent, and active bleeding that required surgery was also 2.5 times more frequent. One way to continue with the use of this immunosuppression agent, might be to adjust the dose instead of discontinuing it. The use of thymoglobulin should be a factor to consider in the postoperative period of these patients.