Sci Rep. 2022 Jun 18;12(1):10281. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-11094-y.
We previously found an association of insulin resistance (IR) with plasma xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) activity in a cross-sectional study. However, whether IR induces increased XOR activity has not been elucidated. This retrospective longitudinal observational study included 347 participants (173 males, 174 females) who underwent annual health examinations and were medication naïve. Homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) index, and physical and laboratory measurements were determined at the baseline. At baseline and 12-month follow-up examinations, plasma XOR activity was determined using our novel assay based on [13C2,15N2] xanthine and liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Subjects with IR, defined as HOMA-IR index ≥ 1.7 (n = 92), exhibited significantly (p < 0.001) higher plasma XOR activity levels than those without IR (n = 255), with an increase in that activity seen in 180 (51.9%) after 12 months. Multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses showed that IR, but not BMI or waist circumference, at baseline was significantly associated with plasma XOR activity (β = 0.094, p = 0.033) and increased plasma XOR activity over the 12-month period (odds ratio, 1.986; 95% confidence interval, 1.048-3.761; p = 0.035), after adjustments for various clinical parameters, including plasma XOR activity at baseline. These results suggest that IR induces increased plasma XOR activity in a manner independent of adiposity.