Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2022 Jul 25;21(1):139. doi: 10.1186/s12933-022-01574-w.
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) can achieve significant improvement in blood pressure in people with diabetes. Furthermore, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have established that SGLT2i have a cardioprotective effect in adults with heart failure (HF). Therefore, we performed this systematic review an meta-analysis to determine the effect of SGLT2i on blood pressure in patients with HF.
METHODS: We used the Medline, Cochrane Library, Embase, and PubMed databases to identify RCTs (published through to April 29, 2022) that evaluated the effect of SGLT2i on HF. The primary endpoint was defined as change in blood pressure. Secondary composite outcomes were heart rate, hematocrit, body weight, and glycated hemoglobin. The N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide level, Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire scores, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were also evaluated.
RESULTS: After a literature search and detailed evaluation, 16 RCTs were included in the quantitative analysis. Pooled analyses showed that SGLT2i were associated with a statistically significant reduction in systolic blood pressure of 1.68 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI] – 2.7, – 0.66; P = 0.001; I2 = 45%) but not diastolic blood pressure (mean difference [MD] -1.06 mmHg; 95% CI -3.20, 1.08; P = 0.33; I2 = 43%) in comparison with controls. Furthermore, SGLT2i decreased body weight (MD – 1.36 kg, 95% CI – 1.68, – 1.03; P < 0.001; I2 = 61%) and the glycated hemoglobin level (MD – 0.16%, 95% CI – 0.28, -0.04, P = 0.007; I2 = 91%) but increased hematocrit (MD 1.63%, 95% CI 0.63, 2.62, P = 0.001; I2 = 100%). There was no significant between-group difference in heart rate (MD – 0.35; 95% CI – 2.05, 1.35, P = 0.69; I2 = 0).
CONCLUSIONS: SGLT2i decreased systolic blood pressure in patients with HF but had no effect on diastolic blood pressure. These inhibitors may have numerous potentially beneficial clinical effects in patients with HF.