BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2022 Jul 27;22(1):601. doi: 10.1186/s12884-022-04933-3.
BACKGROUND: Postnatal care (PNC) services are an essential intervention for improving maternal and child health. In Ethiopia, PNC service has been poorly implemented, despite the governments and partners’ attempt to improve maternal and child health service utilization. Moreover, many literatures identified that women with no education are significantly underutilized the PNC services. Thus, this study aimed to assess the PNC service uptake among women at high risk for underutilization of PNC services and to identify the individual and community level determinants of PNC services uptake in Ethiopia using the positive deviance approach.
METHODS: Data from the Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey 2016 were used. A total of 2417 deviant women (women with no education) were identified through a two-stage stratified sampling technique and included in this analysis. A multilevel mixed-effect binary logistic regression analysis was computed to identify the individual and community-level determinants of PNC services uptake among deviant women. In the final model, a p-value of less than 0.05 and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to declare statistically significant determinants of PNC services uptake.
RESULTS: In this analysis, the uptake of PNC service among deviant women was 5.8% [95% CI: 4.9-6.8]. Working in the agriculture (AOR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.13-3.52), being Orthodox religion follower (AOR = 2.56, 95% CI: 1.42-4.57), living in the highest wealth quantile (AOR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.25-3.91) were the individual level determinants, whereas residing in the city administration (AOR: 3.17, 95% CI: 1.15-8.71), and living closer to health facility (AOR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.03-2.39) were the community level determinants.
CONCLUSION: The study highlighted a better PNC service uptake among deviant women who are working in the agriculture, follows orthodox religion, lives in highest household wealth status, resides in city administration, and living closer to the health facility. The positive deviance approach provides evidences for health policy makers and program implementers to improve health behavior in specific target population, and ultimately to bring better maternal and child health outcomes, despite acknowledged adverse risk profile. Such strategy and knowledge could facilitate targeted efforts aimed at achieving national goals of maternal and newborn mortality reduction in the country.