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Examining sex disparity in the association of waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and BMI with hypertension among older adults in India

Sci Rep. 2022 Jul 30;12(1):13117. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-17518-z.


Hypertension is a public health issue touted as a “silent killer” worldwide. The present study aimed to explore the sex differential in the association of anthropometric measures including body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio with hypertension among older adults in India. The study used data from the Longitudinal Aging Study in India (LASI) conducted during 2017-18. The sample contains 15,098 males and 16,366 females aged 60 years and above. Descriptive statistics (percentages) along with bivariate analysis were presented. Multivariable binary logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between the outcome variable (hypertension) and putative risk or protective factors. About 33.9% of males and 38.2% of females aged 60 years and above suffered from hypertension. After adjusting for the socioeconomic, demographic and health-behavioral factors, the odds of hypertension were 1.37 times (CI: 1.27-1.47), significantly higher among older adults who were obese or overweight than those with no overweight/obese condition. Older adults with high-risk waist circumference and waist-hip ratio had 1.16 times (CI: 1.08-1.25) and 1.42 times (CI: 1.32-1.51) higher odds of suffering from hypertension, respectively compared to their counterparts with no high-risk waist circumference or waist-hip ratio. The interaction effects showed that older females with overweight/obesity [OR: 0.84; CI: 0.61-0.74], high-risk waist circumference [OR: 0.89; CI: 0.78-0.99], and high-risk waist-hip ratio [OR: 0.90; CI: 0.83-0.97] had a lower chance of suffering from hypertension than their male counterparts with the similar anthropometric status. The findings suggested a larger magnitude of the association between obesity, high-risk waist circumference, high-risk waist-hip ratio and prevalent hypertension among older males than females. The study also highlights the importance of measuring obesity and central adiposity in older individuals and using such measures as screening tools for timely identification of hypertension.

PMID:35907951 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-022-17518-z

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