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Foveal eversion patterns in diabetic macular edema

Sci Rep. 2022 Jul 30;12(1):13097. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-17555-8.


The aim of the present study was to describe foveal eversion patterns in diabetic macular edema (DME) and to assess their relationship with the course of the disease and the outcome. The study was designed as prospective, observational, with two years of follow-up. DME patients were divided in two groups, one treated by combined anti-VEGF injections and dexamethasone (DEX) implants, and the other treated by fluocinolone acetonide (FAc) implant with additional anti-VEGF retreatments if needed. Main outcome measures were foveal eversion prevalence, foveal eversion patterns, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT), structural OCT metrics, number of intravitreal injections. One hundred and forty-six eyes (146 patients; 80 males; mean age 67 ± 8 years) affected by already treated DME, with 84 eyes treated with anti-VEGF/DEX treatments (mean of 10 ± 3 injections) and 62 treated with FAc implant. Looking at the treatments administered before the inclusion into the study, 84 eyes (58%) were treated with anti-VEGF injections, whereas 62 eyes (42%) underwent a combination of anti-VEGF and corticosteroids implants. DME eyes showed statistically significant improvements of LogMAR BCVA and CMT over the 2-year follow-up. Foveal eversion was found in 83 eyes (57%), categorized as follows: Pattern 1a (16;19%); Pattern 1b (22;27%) and Pattern 2 (45;54%). BCVA improvement was detected in all the subgroups, excepting for Pattern 2, which showed also significantly worse structural OCT parameters. Pattern 1b and Pattern 2 were characterized by significantly higher prevalence of persistent DME (64% and 89% of cases, respectively). Foveal eversion patterns were correlated with progressively worse DME outcome. Foveal eversion may be associated to the loss of foveal homeostasis, with consequent poor response to intravitreal treatments and worse DME outcome.

PMID:35907954 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-022-17555-8

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