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Somatic mutations show no clear association with red blood cell or human leukocyte antigen alloimmunization in de novo or therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome

Transfusion. 2022 Oct 24. doi: 10.1111/trf.17155. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a marrow failure disease. As patients often require chronic transfusion, many develop red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization or immune-mediated platelet refractoriness. MDS represents a spectrum of diseases with specific categorizations and genetic abnormalities, and we set out to determine if these characteristics predispose patients to antibody formation.

STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A natural language search identified MDS patients with pre-transfusion testing from 2015 to 2020. Marrow reports, cytogenetic results, and next-generation sequencing panels were gathered. Transfusion history and testing were collected from the laboratory information system.

RESULTS: The group consisted of 226 biopsy-proven MDS patients. The prevalence of RBC alloimmunization was 11.1% (25 of 226). Half (23 of 46) of all RBC alloantibodies were against Rh (C, c, E, e) and Kell (K) antigens. There was a relative enrichment for JAK2 positivity among the RBC alloimmunized group. A total of 7.1% (16 of 226) of patients had immune-mediated platelet refractoriness and had increased transfusion requirements (p ≤ 0.01). No disease type or genetic abnormality was significantly associated with alloimmunization or immune-mediated platelet refractoriness.

DISCUSSION: While JAK2 specific mutations were enriched among RBC alloimmunized patients, this association failed to reach statistical significance in our single-center cohort. Further study using larger patient cohorts is warranted. Overall, this cohort of MDS patients had very similar RBC alloimmunization prevalence and anti-RBC antibody specificities as other recent literature. Our data reinforce the finding that MDS patients are at greater risk for alloimmunization and support the use of extended phenotype matching for these at-risk patients.

PMID:36278434 | DOI:10.1111/trf.17155

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