Surgery. 2022 Oct 20:S0039-6060(22)00711-5. doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2022.08.042. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Studies evaluating endoscopic resection for early-stage (cT1N0M0) esophageal adenocarcinoma include small numbers of patients with T1b tumors. The role of endoscopic resection in esophageal adenocarcinoma remains incompletely defined.
METHODS: We queried the National Cancer Database to identify patients presenting with esophageal adenocarcinoma between 2010 and 2017. Those treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and endoscopic ablation were excluded. Patients undergoing endoscopic resection for cT1a and cT1b tumors were separately 1:1 propensity matched for relevant demographic and tumor factors to those undergoing esophagectomy for disease of like clinical stage. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare 5-year overall survival for matched cohorts.
RESULTS: A total of 3,157 patients met the inclusion criteria. Of these patients, 2,024 (64.1%) had cT1a and 1133 (35.9%) had cT1b disease. Among those with cT1a tumors, 461 (22.8%) underwent esophagectomy, 1,357 (67.0%) endoscopic resection, and 206 (10.2%) treatment with chemoradiotherapy alone. Among those with cT1b tumors, 649 (57.3%) underwent esophagectomy, 293 (25.9%) endoscopic resection, and 191 (16.8%) chemoradiotherapy. On unadjusted comparison, patients treated for esophageal adenocarcinoma with chemoradiotherapy had a lower rate of overall survival than those treated with endoscopic resection or esophagectomy (26.1% vs 73.1% vs 75.5%, P < .001). On comparison of matched cohorts, patients undergoing endoscopic resection for cT1b tumors demonstrated lower rates of overall survival than those undergoing esophagectomy (60.6% vs 74.1%, P = .0013), whereas those undergoing endoscopic resection for cT1a tumors demonstrated rates of overall survival statistically similar to those undergoing esophagectomy (77.8% vs 80.2%, P = .75).
CONCLUSION: Esophagectomy is associated with improved overall survival relative to endoscopic resection in patients presenting with cT1bN0M0 but not in those with cT1a esophageal adenocarcinoma.