Environ Monit Assess. 2022 Nov 14;195(1):104. doi: 10.1007/s10661-022-10728-y.
In many regions across the world, including river basins, population growth and land development have enhanced the demand for land and other natural resources. The anthropogenic activities can be detrimental to the vital ecosystems that sustain the river basin region. This work assessed the impact of human modification on land surface temperature (LST) for the Ramganga basin in India. It has been hypothesised that the footprints of anthropogenic activities in the region have been connected to the LST fluctuation for the region, which could indicate environmental degradation. The LST variation between 2000 and 2016 has been estimated to test this hypothesis. The spatio-temporal correlation between human modification and LST has been computed. LST has been calculated with MODIS satellite data in the Google earth engine (GEE) platform, and anthropogenic activities can be visualised using an LU/LC map of the basin created by the Classification and Regression (CART) technique. The statistical parameters (average, maximum and standard deviation) of annual temperature for each pixel in 17 years (2000-2016) have been assessed to establish the links with human modification. The result of this work portrays a positive correlation of 0.705 between maximum LST and human modification. The forest class in the basin region has the lowest average human modification value (0.37), and it also possesses the lowest mean LST of 26.72 °C. Similarly, the settlement class has the highest average human modification value (0.85), and the mean LST temperature of this class has been on the higher side, having a value of 31.07 °C.