J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2022 Oct 24;32(12):1-10. doi: 10.4014/jmb.2209.09052. Online ahead of print.
In this study, we investigated the optimal conditions for 3D structure printing of alternative fats that have the textural properties of lard using beeswax (BW) oleogel-based alternative fat materials by an experimental statistical method. Products printed with over 15% BW oleogel at 50% and 75% infill level (IL) showed high printing accuracy with the lowest dimensional printing deviation for the designed model. The hardness, cohesion, and adhesion of printed samples were influenced by BW concentration and infill level. For multi-response optimization, fixed target values (hardness, adhesiveness, and cohesiveness) were applied with lard printed at 75% IL. The preparation parameters obtained as a result of multiple reaction prediction were 58.9% IL and 16.0% BW, and printing with this oleogel achieved fixed target values similar to those of lard. In conclusion, our study shows that 3D printing based on the BW oleogel system produces complex internal structures that allow adjustment of the textural properties of the printed samples, and BW oleogels could potentially serve as an excellent replacement for fat.