BMC Oral Health. 2022 Nov 24;22(1):526. doi: 10.1186/s12903-022-02591-7.
BACKGROUND: There are no studies that have assessed advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and interleukin 17A (IL-17A) levels in whole saliva (WS) of patients with dental implants. The aim was to compare levels of AGEs and IL-17A in WS and peri-implant clinical and radiographic status of patients with and without osteoporosis at 6-years’ follow-up.
METHODS: Osteoporotic (Group-1) and systemically healthy controls (Group-2) having undergone dental implant therapy at least 5 years ago were included. A questionnaire was used to collect information about age, gender, duration and treatment of osteoporosis, number and duration of implants in function, and frequencies of toothbrushing, flossing and hygiene visits. Modified bleeding and plaque indies (mBI and mPI), peri-implant probing depth (PD) and crestal bone loss (CBL) were recorded. WS was collected and levels of AGEs and IL-17A were determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Sample-size estimation was done and statistical analyses were doing using the independent t- and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Statistical significance was marked for P-values that were below 0.01.
RESULTS: In patients with (n = 24) and without (n = 27) osteoporosis, implants were in function for 6.3 ± 0.27 and 6.6 ± 0.5 years, respectively. There was no significant difference in peri-implant mBI, PD, mPI and CBL in both groups. Levels of AGE in patients with (119.6 ± 26.5 μg/ml) and without (91.5 ± 14.6 μg/ml) osteoporosis were comparable. Levels of whole salivary IL-17A in patients without and with osteoporosis were 4.6 ± 0.3 and 5.1 ± 0.8 pg/ml, respectively. Flossing of full mouth interproximal spaces once and twice daily toothbrushing daily was reported by 100% patients with osteoporosis. Among patients with osteoporosis 75% and 25% individuals were receiving professional dental prophylaxis every 4 and 6 months, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of the present study osteoporotic patients are not at an increased risk of peri-implant diseases and can demonstrate salivary AGE and IL-17A levels comparable to non-osteoporotic individuals as long as oral hygiene is stringently maintained.