Indian J Pediatr. 2022 Dec 1. doi: 10.1007/s12098-022-04350-6. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVES: To describe prevalence of various imaging findings in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients; and find imaging biomarkers for differentiating chest infections caused by different micro-organisms.
METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on 15 patients (49 scans) with proven CGD. Scans which had a correlative microbiological diagnosis for organisms were included in the analysis. The scans were reviewed by 3 radiologists on a predefined proforma, under the lung parenchymal, airway, pleural, mediastinal, and extrathoracic abnormalities. Analysis of various imaging parameters on a semiquantitative scale was performed, followed by a correlation of each imaging findings with causative organisms.
RESULT: The mean age of presentation was nearly 7 y, with a male preponderance. Definitive proof of causative organisms was obtained in 22 scans. Bacterial infection was found in 7, fungal in 12, tubercular in 2, and viral in 1 scan. Most prevalent thoracic imaging manifestations included lymphadenopathy (commonest), consolidation, nodules, air trapping, and bronchiectasis. Fungal infections showed necrotic conglomerate lymphadenopathy, cavitating nodules, and multilobar consolidation more frequently than bacterial infections (though not statistically significant). Abscesses and lymphadenopathy were the most common extrathoracic manifestations.
CONCLUSION: In patients with CGD, multifocal or multilobar consolidation, mass-like consolidation, cavitating nodules, and conglomerate necrotic lymphadenopathy should alert the radiologist to a possible fungal cause.