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Implementation of an academic detailing intervention to increase naloxone distribution and foster engagement in harm reduction from the community clinician

J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2022 Dec 7:S1544-3191(22)00397-1. doi: 10.1016/j.japh.2022.12.001. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: Respond to Prevent (R2P) is a randomized clinical trial which sought to accelerate distribution of naloxone and other harm reduction materials from community pharmacies. R2P combined an online continuing education course with in-store materials, specifically designed for use in community pharmacies, and then supported implementation through the one-on-one educational technique of academic detailing.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to describe and synthesize our experiences providing academic detailing as part of the R2P randomized trial.

METHODS: Closed-ended items from standardized post detailing questionnaires were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Open-ended items were content analyzed for key themes using immersion-crystallization qualitative methods.

RESULTS: A total of 176 pharmacies participated in R2P with 175 receiving their initial academic detailing visit between August 2019 and May 2021. Initial visits were in-person and lasted a median of 35 minutes (interquartile range, 20-45 minutes). The R2P naloxone guide was the most common topic covered (n = 162, 92.6%). Following a fidelity check to assess adequacy of the R2P program implementation, 80 pharmacies (45.7%) required secondary academic detailing. Secondary detailing was more targeted and most frequently focused on the sale of nonprescription syringes (n = 28; 35.2%) or disposal container distribution (n = 30; 37.5%). Analysis of the open-ended items identified factors that the detailers perceived to affect the quality of academic detailing sessions, including the pharmacy environment, participant knowledge of and attitudes toward the subject matter, and ability of the detailer to remain flexible yet consistent.

CONCLUSION: R2P provided a standardized process to foster naloxone distribution and engagement in harm reduction with demonstrated implementation in 175 community pharmacies across 4 states. Academic detailing was perceived to be well-received and effective at providing education and promoting distribution of naloxone and nonprescription syringes in community pharmacies. Additional research is needed to confirm these perceptions through evaluation post-intervention behavioral and attitude changes.

PMID:36567216 | DOI:10.1016/j.japh.2022.12.001

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