Arch Esp Urol. 2022 Dec;75(10):862-866. doi: 10.56434/j.arch.esp.urol.20227510.125.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and cost effectiveness of two-stage percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in complex renal calculus disease.
METHODS: The clinical data of 106 patients who underwent two-stage PCNL at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University from January 2017 to May 2022 were analyzed. In order to select more accurate timing and strategies to reduce costs and surgery risk in two-stage PCNL patients, different parameters were measured-including the preoperative urinary tract infection, intraoperative bleeding, operative time, postoperative stone clearance and treatment costs. Patients were divided into group A and group B according to different timings of two-stage PCNL operation. Group A included patients who underwent two-stage PCNL during their period of hospitalization 5 to 9 days after the one-stage PCNL. Group B comprised patients who were re-hospitalized for two-stage PCNL 29 to 35 days after the one-stage PCNL.
RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences in the influence of stone diameter and operation time in intraoperative blood loss of PCNL in 106 patients (p < 0.001). Compared with one-stage PCNL, the intraoperative hemoglobin loss and hematocrit loss means of patients with two-stage PCNL were decreased, the stone diameter mean of was smaller, and the mean operative time was diminished (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the hemoglobin loss, hematocrit loss and stone clearance rate means between group A and group B (p > 0.05). The urinary tract infection rate in group A was lower than the one in group B, and the average treatment cost was lower than the one in group B (p = 0.006, p < 0.001, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative bleeding in PCNL is influenced by stone diameter and operative time. Two-stage PCNL displays smaller calculi, shorter operation time and lower intraoperative blood loss than one-stage PCNL. Patients who had no surgical contraindication could undergo two-stage PCNL during the same hospitalization 5 to 9 days after one-stage PCNL to avoid rehospitalization. This approach could reduce the risk of urinary tract infection of indwelling nephrostomy tube and decrease the economic burden of patients.