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Asymptomatic nasopharyngeal bacterial carriage, multi-drug resistance pattern and associated factors among primary school children at Debre Berhan town, North Shewa, Ethiopia

Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2023 Jan 21;22(1):9. doi: 10.1186/s12941-023-00557-3.


BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carriage of bacteria is the main source for transmission of pathogens across individuals and horizontal spread of organisms in the community. It is an important risk factor for the acquisition of community-acquired respiratory tract infection. It is the major public health problem among children. The asymptomatic carriage of nasopharyngeal bacteria is different globally, particularly in Africa, carriage is higher in children and decreases with increasing age, 63.2% in children less than 5 years, 42.6% in children 5-15 years, and 28.0% in adults older than 15 years.

OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study was to determine asymptomatic nasopharyngeal bacterial carriage, multi-drug resistance pattern and associated factors among primary school children at Debre Berhan town, North Shewa, Ethiopia.

METHODS: Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted at Debre Berhan town primary schools from February 1 to April 30, 2021. Primarily, the schools were stratified into two strata, public and private primary schools. From a total of sixteen government and fourteen private primary schools, five government and five private schools were selected by using a simple random sampling technique. Socio-demographic variables and potential risk factors were assessed using a structured questionnaire. A total of 384 nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected using sterile swabs aseptically; and inoculated on Blood agar, Chocolate agar, MacConkey agar, and Mannitol salt agar. The colony was characterized to isolate bacteria, and bacterial identification was performed by Gram reaction, hemolysis patterns, colonial characteristics and pigmentation, catalase test, coagulase test, mannitol fermentation test, oxidase test, fermentation of carbohydrates, H2S production, motility, formation of indole, triple sugar iron agar (TSI), citrate utilization, lysine decarboxylase or methyl red vogues proskur utilization, urea hydrolysis and satellitism tests. Antimicrobial sensitivity tests were performed by using modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Data were entered into statistical package Epi data and transferred to and analyzed using SPSS software version-23. P value of < 0.05 with Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CIs) was considered as statistically significant.

RESULTS: The overall prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of bacterial isolate was 35.7% (95% CI 30.7-40.7%). The predominant isolates were Staphylococcus aureus 54.5% followed by coagulase-negative Staphylococcus 35.8%, and Streptococcus pyogens 4.5%. Most bacterial isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamycin, nitrofurantoin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin; and the overall multidrug resistance pattern of isolated bacteria was 62.03% out of 137 bacterial isolates. Numbers of rooms ≤ 2 per house [AOR = 5.88, 95%CI 1.26-27.57], having history of hospitalization [AOR = 4.08, 95%CI 1.45-11.53], passive smoking [AOR = 4.87, 95%CI 1.49-15.97], family size of > 5 members [AOR = 2.17, 95%CI 1.24-3.81], and number of students in the classroom [AOR = 2.35,95%CI 1.37-4.02] were statistically significant associated risk factors for nasopharyngeal bacteria carriage.

CONCLUSION: Asymptomatic nasopharyngeal bacteria carriage in children is alarming for community-acquired infection. The overall multidrug resistance was very high. The risk of the carriage was increased with having a history of passive smoking, being in large family size and number of students per class. Longitudinal follow-up studies would be helpful for better understanding the infection risk in bacterial pathogen carriers.

PMID:36681843 | DOI:10.1186/s12941-023-00557-3

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