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Nutrition and adipose tissue distribution in low cardiovascular risk individuals, depending on the central obesity

Vopr Pitan. 2023;92(1):74-84. doi: 10.33029/0042-8833-2023-92-1-74-84. Epub 2022 Dec 1.


The low cardiovascular risk group according to SCORE in relation to the clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients is very heterogeneous, which leads to the presence of a residual risk of cardiovascular events. This category may include individuals with a family history of cardiovascular disease at a young age, with abdominal obesity (AO), endothelial dysfunction, and high levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. In this regard, an active search is underway for new metabolic markers within the low cardiovascular risk group. The purpose of the study was to compare the nutrition, the adipose tissue distribution in low cardiovascular risk individuals, depending on the AO. Material and methods. The study included 86 healthy low risk (SCORE<1%) patients (mean age 42.6±2 years), who were divided into 2 groups: with AO [waist circumference (WC) >=94 cm in men and >=80 cm in women] – 44 patients (32% of men) and without AO – 42 patients (38% of men). The body composition was carried out using the bioimpedance analyzer. The distribution of ectopic fat deposits in the liver, pancreas and epicardial region was studied using ultrasound methods. A frequency questionnaire (Diet Risk Score) was used to assess nutrition. Results. In low risk patients with AO, signs of unhealthy diet are statistically significantly more common (in 52 in the main group vs 2% in the control group, p<0.01), ectopic deposition of adipose tissue in the liver (53 vs 9%, p<0.001), pancreas (56% in the main group, absent in the control group, p<0.001), epicardia l region (the epicardial fat thickness median is 4.24 mm in the main group vs 2.15 mm in the control group) compared with a control group. Conclusion. The low cardiovascular risk group is very heterogeneous. One of the markers of heterogeneity is central obesity – a marker of unhealthy diet, subclinical ectopic fat deposition and hypertriglyceridemia. Patients with AO of the low cardiovascular risk group require a more thorough examination with the obligatory determination of waist circumference, ultrasound assessment of the liver and pancreas parenchyma, and determination of the epicardial fat thickness. Using a short nutrition questionnaire allows you to quickly identify signs of unhealthy diet and discuss them with the patient.

PMID:36883542 | DOI:10.33029/0042-8833-2023-92-1-74-84

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