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Prevalence and association of diabetic nephropathy in newly diagnosed Chinese patients with diabetes in the Hebei province: A single-center case-control study

Medicine (Baltimore). 2023 Mar 17;102(11):e32911. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000032911.


Diabetes is a chronic disease and has huge pressure on patients and the medical system, especially for patients with diabetic complications, for example, diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy is a diabetic complication associated with damage to the kidney. To improve the quality of life of patients with diabetes, it is necessary to understand the factors that are associated with diabetic nephropathy. The objective of the study was to find the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy in newly diagnosed patients with diabetes and to develop the association between clinicopathological parameters and diabetic nephropathy. In a case-control study, demographics, anthropometric, and clinicopathological parameters of a total of 305 newly diagnosed patients with diabetes (the fasting blood glucose ≥ 7.0 mM/L and/or glycosylated hemoglobin ≥ 6.5 mM/L) in Hebei province were included in the analysis. If the urine albumin to creatinine ratio was ≥ 30 (microalbuminuria) then patients were considered diabetic nephropathy. Among enrolled patients, 206 (68%) were males and 99 (32%) were females and they were 46 to 71 years old. Demographic variables and health-related behaviors were the same among patients with diabetes either with nephropathy (case group, n = 135) or patients without nephropathy (control group, n = 170, P > .05 for all). The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy was 44%. Female to male ratio was 1:1.7 in the case group. Patients with diabetic nephropathy had higher body weight (P < .0001), waist circumference (P = .0006), and body mass index (P = .0002) than those of patients without nephropathy. Abnormal urinary globulin (P = .041, odd ratio (OR): 1.1231) was associated with diabetic nephropathy. Aspartate transaminase (P = .0651, OR: 0.8541), alkaline phosphatase (P = .0661, OR: 0.8122), hypertension (P = .0821, OR: 0.8214), and blood urea nitrogen (P = .0842, OR: 0.9411) were not significantly associated with diabetic neuropathy. However, they are near the statistical cutoff value. The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy in newly diagnosed diabetic patients of Hebei province is higher than those of the other provinces. Urinary globulin excretion had a weak association with the presence of nephropathy defined by urinary albumin excretion in patients with diabetes. The presence of other diabetic complications is also an essential parameter for diabetic nephropathy. Males are more susceptible to diabetic nephropathy than females if diabetic (Evidence Level: V; Technical Efficacy: Stage 3).

PMID:36930094 | DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000032911

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