Niger Postgrad Med J. 2023 Jul-Sep;30(3):200-209. doi: 10.4103/npmj.npmj_80_23.
BACKGROUND: Kidney diseases requiring haemodialysis are becoming an emerging public health problem. This study aimed to determine the burden, socio-demographic and other risk factors associated with haemodialysis in Northwest Nigeria.
METHODOLOGY: The study was a retrospective multicentre review of secondary data from the dialysis centres of public hospitals in northwestern Nigeria. Risk factors for renal failure were examined in 1329 patients who were enrolled for haemodialysis between 2019 and 2022 in the four public dialysis centres in Kano and Jigawa state. Data were analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, version 22.0, with statistical significance set at P ≤ 0.05.
RESULTS: The minimum age of the patients was 2 years and the maximum was 100 years with a median of 48 (interquartile range = 31, 60) years. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was found amongst more than two-thirds 998 (75.1%) of the patients. Up to 51 (3.8%), 62 (4.7%) and 10 (0.8%) were seropositive for HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C, respectively. Acute kidney injury (AKI) was significantly higher (67.9%, P < 0.001) amongst patients with post-partum haemorrhage (PPH), and were 24 times more likely to develop AKI when compared with those with no PPH (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] =24, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [13.5-44.5]). CKD was significantly higher amongst patients with hypertension (HTN) (84.9%, P < 0.001), and were 3.2 times more likely to develop CKD compared with non-hypertensives (aOR = 3.2, 95% CI = [2.4-4.1]). Acute on CKD (AOCCKD) was significantly higher amongst patients with chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN) (28.1%, P < 0.001), and were three times more likely to develop AOCCKD than those without CGN (aOR = 3, 95% CI = [2.1-4.2]).
CONCLUSION: PPH was the major reason for AKI related haemodialysis while diabetes and HTN were the major causes of CKD-requiring haemodialysis. CGN was more amongst patients who had dialysis due to acute exacerbation of CKD. The government and relevant stakeholders should ensure a favourable policy for the screening and management of patients.