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Sleep disturbances and associated factors amongst stroke survivors in North Central, Nigeria

Niger Postgrad Med J. 2023 Jul-Sep;30(3):193-199. doi: 10.4103/npmj.npmj_56_23.


INTRODUCTION: Sleep disturbance is common in persons with stroke and when unrecognised and untreated may hinder rehabilitation efforts and lead to poor functional outcome. It may also result in increased risk for stroke recurrence.

AIM: We investigated the frequency and associated factors of sleep disturbances amongst stroke survivors.

METHODOLOGY: One hundred and ten stroke survivors attending the neurology outpatient clinics of two tertiary hospitals, from February 2021 to January 2022, were interviewed after obtaining ethical approval and informed consent. We used a structured questionnaire to obtain their socio-demographic, clinical characteristics and sleep disturbances. Excessive daytime sleepiness was assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Data were analysed with statistical significance set at P < 0.05.

RESULTS: Eighty (72.7%) patients were males with a mean age of 61.4 ± 11.8, slightly older than the females (30, 27.3%) with a mean age of 60.9 ± 2.9. Their median follow-up duration was 7.5 months. Majority (84, 76.4%) had ischaemic stroke, and the frequency of sleep disturbances was 37 (33.6%) consisting of insomnia (19, 17.3%), hypersomnia (10, 9.0%), sleep-disordered breathing (5, 4.5%) and sleep-related movement disorder (3, 2.7%), respectively. Using the ESS score, 22 (20.0%) had mild, 10 (9.0%) had moderate and 7 (6.4%) had severe ESS scores, respectively. Univariate analysis showed depression to be significantly associated with ESS (P = 0.006) whereas multivariate analysis revealed age and sex as significant associated factors (P = 0.008 and P = 0.009) of ESS.

CONCLUSION: More than one-third of participants reported sleep disturbances with depression, age and gender as associated factors.

PMID:37675695 | DOI:10.4103/npmj.npmj_56_23

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